Print ISSN:   2067-533X
Online ISSN: 2067-8223




ARCHIVE: Volume 9 - 2018

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Issue Cover

Volume 9, Issue 1, March 2018

Research articles

R. Bugini, C. Corti, L. Folli, L. Rampazzi

The Use of Mortar to Imitate White Marble and Other Stones

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-12

The reproduction of natural stone using different kinds of mortars has always been an important character of the architecture of Lombardy (Italy). Many examples of artificial stone, made of a coating of lime mortar on stone or brick structures, are available from Roman times. At the turn of the 20th century, a new kind of material, based on Portland cement and crushed stone, made possible a quite perfect reproduction of different kinds of stone and the making of complicated decorative elements. The raw materials employed to reproduce white marble and other stones used in Lombard architecture were investigated starting from the Fontana di Camerlata (Como, 1936).

Keywords: Mortar; Artificial stone; Cast stone; Marble; Granite; Calcarenite

E.A. Amin

Conservation of a Gauze Textile from the Tulunid Period in Egyptian Textile Museum, Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 13-24
The article is about the documentation and conservation of an Islamic textile piece from the Tulunid period. The object was made of gauze textile. The main challenges of previous conservation at the excavation site where the poor condition of the object that the piece was glued on a free acid paper and it caused dryness of the fibers. SEM microscopy was used in the identification of textile fibers; x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant, FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. The main conservation treatments removed the piece far from acid free paper, surface cleaning and supporting the fabrics of the object on blue linen support fabrics using stitches.

Keywords: Gauze; Stitches; Conservation; Treatments; Supporting

T. Selvaraj, R. Ramadoss

Analysis and Characterisation of Third Century Ancient Mortars at Subramanyaswamy Temple Rediscovered After the 2004 Tsunami Near Mamallapuram Shore, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-38
A characterization study on lime mortar samples from the Subramanya Swamy temple, Saluvankuppam, rediscovered after the 2004 tsunami, was carried out to understand the raw materials used and the application technology. The binder is air lime with binder to aggregate ratio of 2:3. Calcitic crushed sea shells along with siliceous river sand were used. The particles are poorly graded with large amount of nano-particles in the form of silt and clay minerals. The major peaks identified in XRD are Calcite, Quartz and Kaolinite. The presence of Geothite and Gibbsite in the mortar is due to chemical reaction between the mortar and the laterite bricks. The mortar is not affected by salt crystallization which is evident from the low sodium chloride content of 0.32%. The organic test results indicated the presence of carbohydrates and protein that supports the traditional practice of adding herbs into mortars. TGA point out structurally bound water of 1.5% and carbon dioxide 28.88%. The SEM images show the presence of microbial colonies in the mortars. EDX indicates the complete formation of Calcite.

Keywords: Archaeological site; Coastal ancient temple; Old lime mortar; XRD; SEM-EDX; TGA-DTA

A. Abdrabou, M. Abdallah, I.A. Shaheen, H.M. Kamal

Investigation of an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Statuette by Imaging and Spectroscopy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 39-54
This paper describes the combined use of imaging and spectroscopic techniques performed on a polychrome wooden statuette of the god Ptah –Sokr- Osiris from 26th dynasty in ancient Egypt, with the aim of identifying the painted materials layered on wood surface and emphasizing the surface texture of the painted preparation layers. The identification of wood was also included in the study. The wood sample was identified by observing the thin sections with optical transmission light microscope; the painted materials layered on the wood surface were analyzed by both imaging and spectroscopic techniques including optical microscopy (OM), reflectance transformation imaging (RTI), technical photography [visible, visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL), ultraviolet reflectance (UVR), infrared (IR), visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), infrared false color (IRFC)] ,dino-lite USB microscope (UVlIR), handheld X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The microscopic observation of wood thin sections allows identifying it as a native Egyptian Sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus). The preparation layer was proved to be a mixture of calcite and quartz. The chromatic palette used in the statuette was identified as hematite, Egyptian blue, arsenic sulphides, possibly malachite and carbon from charred animal origin. The application of RTI provided new and valuable information about surface irregularities of the painted layers and marks relating to surface preparation that are imperceptible to the naked eye or through other inspection techniques. Dino-Lite USB digital microscope (UV/ IR) has proven to be a simple and a cost-effective tool for recognizing the spatial distribution of the single crystals of the pigments.

Keywords: Egyptian polychrome statuette; Reflectance transformation imaging; Technical photography; XRF; Wood identification.

A. Elyamani, M.S. El-Rashidy, M. Abdel-Hafez, H. Gad El-Rab

A Contribution to the Conservation of 20th Century Architectural Heritage in Khedival Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 55-70
Cairo Down-Town is known as Khedival Cairo. It is famous for its rich architectural heritage buildings designed by many European architects during the 19th and the 20th c. Many of these buildings have deteriorated due to misuse and lack of maintenance. In this paper, the survival of a historic balcony of one of these buildings (dating back to 1911) due to extensive intervention works is presented. The leaked water from air-conditioning resulted in corrosion of the steel beams carrying the balcony. Subsequently, the decorative units at the balcony bottom were detached and started to fall down. An intervention was carried out to allow the balcony to survive. The adequacy of the intervention was ensured by numerical analysis and in-situ static loading test. It was found that the adopted intervention represented a good example that could be applied to many other similar balconies widely found in Khedival Cairo.

Keywords: Khedival Cairo; Architectural heritage; Deterioration; Intervention; Corrosion; Concrete; Static loading test; Model updating; Numerical analysis.

M. Ghorbani, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpuor

Effect of Physical Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers Bio-Composite as a Coating on the Paper Works

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 71-80
The use of material with proper physical characteristics is considered a main criterion for treatment of paper works. In this study, Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber (BCN) has been used in the form of nanocomposite into Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (Klucel-G), in order to evaluation of its physical characteristics. Klucel-G polymer is often used a common material for treatment of paper works. After preparing this Bio-Nanocomposite by using hydrosoluble casting method, were coated on paper samples by coater machine and film samples were also prepared. Paper samples color change behavior was evaluated by Reflective Spectrophotometry test (UV-Vis) and also Thermal behavior (Tg temperature) from nanocomposite dried films was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry technique (DSC). The results of this study showed that by adding this Nano-fiber improved Tg thermal behavior in aging conditions. As a result, the existence of this Nano-additive, as compared with pure Klucel-G, resulted in resistance against decrease of glass temperature of Klucel-G, and hence its permanence and durability. The results of Calorimetry also showed that color change behavior of paper samples was improved, because of the presence of this Nanofiber.

Keywords: Paper work; Protection; Cellulose nanofiber; Klucel; Coating; Physical characteristic

T. Palomar, B. Ramírez Barat, E. Cano

Evaluation of Cleaning Treatments For Tarnished Silver: The Conservator´s Perspective

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 81-90

Several treatments appear in the bibliography to clean the tarnished silver. However, the information about the aspect and efficiency of the cleanings is spread or not completely detailed in these works. With this purpose, a worldwide survey has been carried out to identify of the most common treatments for cleaning tarnished silver and the personal experience of professionals about the frequency of use, the cleaning efficiency, the surface appearance, the application speed, the difficulty and the applicability. This paper contains the results of this survey.

Keywords: Silver; Silver Sulfide; Tarnishing; Cleaning treatments; Conservation

M. Abdallah, A. Abdrabou

Tutankhamen’s Small Shrines (Naoses): Technology of Woodworking and Identification of Wood Species

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 91-104
The focus of this paper is to reveal unknown features and to obtain still more information on technology of wood working used on the black shrine-shaped boxes from Tutankhamen collection. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in identification of the wood species and shed lit on the reflection of The sudden death of the young king, the value of wood and its relative scarcity, not only in ingenious shrines construction methods and the incorporation of many fragments of timber, but also in the presence numerous pieces that show clear evidence of reuse from earlier objects. Patching, even for the royal wood workings, with another piece of wood secured by dowels and white pastes was one option and knots holes were sometimes drilled out and filled with plugs. The botanical species of the wood samples were identified by observing the thin sections under an optical transmission light microscope; technology of wood working were examined by visible imaging and raking light along with 3D software. The results revealed that cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) and sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus) had been used for making the shrines’ boards and sleds while tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.), and Sidder (nabk) (Zizyphus spina Christi) used for making wooden dowels. Wooden pegs used to collect the shrine boards, roof and cornice together while the wooden joint of through mortise and tenon was used to collect the body of the shrine to the sled. The raking light was effective in revealing the tools marks.

Keywords: Tutankhamen; Wood identification; Cedrus libani; Ficus sycomorus; Raking light; Patching.

G. Papini, L. Borgioli, D. De Luca, M.O. Gui, F. Modugno

Evaluation of the Effects of Cyclododecane on Oil Paintings

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 105-116
The solubility of oil paint components during the application of cyclododecane in solvent mixtures was evaluated in order to predict if the application of cyclododecane during restoration may significantly alter the chemical state of the paint layer in oil paintings. The chemical affinity between some of the oil binder components and non-polar cyclododecane could potentially lead to interactions or leaching during the application. In order to investigate these effects a set of samples taken from oil paintings from the early 1900s and 2008, were treated with cyclododecane in a solution, melted, and sprayed as aerosol. The samples were also submitted to a comparative extractive treatment with cyclododecane and organic solvents of different polarities. After the treatments, the extracted components were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which provided detailed molecular information on the composition of the extracts, together with a quantitative profile of fatty acids in extracted triglycerides, after saponification and derivatisation. The results show that applications of cyclododecane both as a spray and in a saturated solution in a hydrocarbon solvent determine the extraction of a low amount of lipids from the paint. On the other hand, when cyclododecane is applied in the melted form, there is an extraction of lipid components of the paint into the treatment solution.

Keywords: Oil paintings; Cyclododecane; Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry; Fatty acids; Organic solvents.

T.A. Salah

Investigation and Restoration of a 17th Century AD Manuscript At Al-Azhar Library In Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 117-126
This case study manuscript "Suluk alttariqat alssufia", which is kept at the Al-azhar Library in Cairo is documented and treated. The manuscript was made from cotton fibers that may have been used the induction of paper. It’s exposure to various deteriorating factors, including neglect and inappropriate exhibition, caused a lot of damage. The unavailability of appropriate conditions at the library, including relative humidity, temperature, light and unsealed storage cases, lead to gathering of air dust particles and aerosols inside the storage rooms. All these factors led to severe damage which resulted in the manifestation of dust and fungi stains formed on the paper manuscript. This research offers a treatment and restoration plan and illustrates the actual scientific procedures that were followed during the restoration and treatment of the manuscript, starting from the archaeological documentation, the analysis and scientific inspection (SEM-EDX, FTIR-ATR) which were carried out to identify the components, and the actual stages of restoration and conservation.

Keywords: Manuscript; Degradation and deterioration effects; Fungal attack; Preservation and restoration; Analysis methods by FTIR and SEM-EDXS, Identification of fungi

R.R.A. Hassan, M.F. Ali, A.G.A. Fahmy

Use of SEM, FTIR and Amino Acid Analysis Methods to Assess the Damage of Some Historical Leather Bindings From XIXth Century, Stored in National Archive, Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 127-136
The current study aims to assess the damage of some historical leathers dating from 1806, 1848, 1880, and, respectively, 1887 A.D. Measurement of pH, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SEM and amino-acid composition study were undertaken, to improve our understanding of damage contained in leather. Several structural changes were observed in spectra of deteriorated leather. SEM data, however, show that corium layer are less susceptible to factors deterioration than are grain layer. The study proves that deterioration of leather results from both oxidation and hydrolysis.

Keywords: Collagen; Leather book binding; SEM; Amino acid; Deterioration; Damage

M.F. Ali, A.E. Ali

Study of the Manufacturing Technique and Chemical Characterization of an Ethiopian Icon in the Coptic Museum in Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 137-150
Ethiopian icons played an important role in Ethiopian arts in the period between mid-fifteenth centuries and the twentieth century. The religious ties between Egypt and Abyssinia witnessed a prosperous phase in the period after the introduction of Christianity in the fourth century AD. Several previous studies have dealt with Ethiopian icons in terms of their artistic and pictorial side; however, there are no similar studies in Egypt discussing their manufacturing techniques, deterioration, and proper treatment and conservation methods. Therefore, this study aims to study the manufacturing technique of an anonymous Ethiopian icon (registration number 4881) kept in the storagerooms of the Coptic Museum in Cairo. This icon depicts St. George riding his horse and handling in his hand spears in the form of an X. Its dimension 123.5 cm long, 113.4 cm wide . The analytical techniques utilized in this study were optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopes (FTIR). The results indicated that the icon was done on a cotton canvas, and the identified pigments are the blue of lapislazuli, yellow of lead chromate, white of anhydrite and black of carbon black from bones. The ground layer is made of anhydrite (calcium sulphate).

Keywords: Ethiopian; Icons; Coptic; Canvas; Painting; Pigments; Binder

B. Ratoi, V. Pelin, I. Sandu, M. Branzila, I.G. Sandu

Hidden Message In Stone Masonry Of Galata Monastery - Iasi City, Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 151-164
Galata Church is one of the oldest architectural monuments in Iași, Romania, was being built predominantly from geological period of Cenozoic (Sarmatian) calcareous rocks, locally known as the Repedea Limestone and Șcheia Sandstone. These rocks are composed of different facies and microfacies types and were deposited on a beach environment. This paper presents a number of data regarding the present status of wall of enclosure conservation based on petrographic and sedimentological microscopic analysis that were correlated with microscopic analysis of lithic materials from the current open pits from Iași area from where the stone used was extracted.

Keywords: Galata Monastery; Enclosure walls; Repedea oolite; Sedimentary facies; Sarmatian open pits

D. Meena, S. Bhatnagar, A. Singh

A Critical Review on Anogeissus Pendula: An Important Species of Arid Zone

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 165-172
Anogeissus pendula is a multipurpose tree species with immense ethno-ecological importance. The tree has ecological significance for the Aravallis and other hilly areas of the country. The tree of Anogeissus pendula is socially acceptable and economically viable to the farming community. It is valued for timber and regarded as the third toughest timber in the world. Also used as a source of fuel wood, fodder and gum. However, Anogeissus pendula has some constraint also such as seed germination capacity and seedling growth is very slow. Due to its very slow growing nature it forms bushy appearance which reduces the value of the timber. Alternatively, attempts have been made to propagate this tree through in vitro approaches. In this communication, we emphasize the research progress made with respect to Anogeissus pendula on various aspects, and suggest some future directions of research.

Keywords: Anogeissus pendula; Ethno-ecological context; Conservation status; Timber species.

U.S. Abubakar, B.I. Khalifa, F. Abdu, M. Sanusi, T.A. Gawuna, J.G. Adamu, S.S. Rogo

Threatened Medicinal Plants of Kano Flora and the Need for Urgent Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 173-178
The sustainable utilization and conservation of medicinal plants could be best achieved by involving the traditional practitioners. Thus, this study was aimed at identifying medicinal plant species that have become threatened and are at risk of becoming endangered for urgent conservation action. Informal interviews were used to collect data from traditional medical practitioners in Kano State, Nigeria. The data collected included the local names of the threatened medicinal plants, possible causes of the threat and efforts made by the respondents to conserve the plants. Findings from the study showed that thirty one (31) plant species belonging to nineteen (19) families were said to be threatened. Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Albizia chevalieri, Aristolochia albida, Balsamodendron africanum, Burkea africana, Ceiba pentandra, Cissus quandrangularis, Ficus sycomorus, Kigelia africana, Lannea microcarpa, Terminalia avicennoides, Mitragyna inermis, Prosopis africana and Securidaca longipedunculata were the most frequently mentioned plant species. The respondents attributed this loss to urbanization, deforestation, expansion of agricultural activities and unsustainable collection of the plants. Therefore, there is need by all stakeholders to initiate conservation programs to save these plants from becoming endangered.

Keywords: Conservation; Traditional practitioners; Medicinal plants; Endangered plants.

T. Bashir, T. Bhattacharya, K. Poudyal, S. Sathyakumar

Preliminary Observations on the Cryptic Fauna of Sikkim Trans-Himalaya, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 179-184
The Sikkim Trans-Himalaya remains one of the most threatened and least explored ecosystems in India in spite of its rich ecological and socio-cultural importance. We therefore aimed at conducting a baseline survey of its faunal diversity and the prevailing threats using sign surveys and camera trapping in the Lhonak catchment of North Sikkim during the spring of 2012. We confirmed the presence of Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from the catchment through camera trap photos alongwith the records of seven other wild animal species. The carnivores in the area seemed to be under threat due to retaliatory killings by local herders in response to livestock depredation. Besides this, other potential threats to the biodiversity and the habitat included overstocking, feral dogs, infrastructure development and presence of defense forces in the area. We therefore propose extensive surveys and long-term monitoring exercises that could aid in resolving these issues and benefit towards efficient conservation and management of this unique Trans-Himalayan landscape of Sikkim.

Keywords: Trans-Himalaya; Sikkim; Camera trapping; Tibetan wolf; Livestock depredation

O.V. Oyerinde, J.A. Olusola, A.A. Adebo

Variation in Morphometric Traits of Trees, Pods and Seeds of Parkia Biglobosa (jacq) g. in Southwestern, Nigeria

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 185-192
Tropical forests contain many important indigenous tree species that are edible and of socio-economically. The morphological traits of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) G pods and seeds from three different States in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Tree growth measurements (height, crown diameter and diameter at breast height) were made on 10 trees of Parkia biglobosa selected from two villages from a Local Government in three States (Ekiti, Ondo and Osun), resulting into 60 trees for the study were sampled and analyzed. The pods were measured for morphological parameters (pod number, pod weight, pod length, pod breadth, and number of seeds). Means for each parameter were computed and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine if there were significant differences between States. The result of tree growth parameters differs from one State to another. It reveals that height ranges from 3.3- 13m (Osun), 2.7-13.5m (Ekiti) and 5.3-9.5m (Ondo State). Crown diameter shows that the tree in Osun varies between 4-18m, 7.5-20.2m, and 6- 23.2m for Ekiti and Ondo. Tree mean dbh varies from one state to the others, ranges between 9.1-18.9cm (Osun); 11.8-20.8cm (Ekiti) and between 10.7cm and 13.4cm (Ondo State) respectively. There were significant variations in morphological traits from one State to the other. Mean pod number varied from 31- 40.6, with trees from Ondo show higher number than Ekiti and Osun States. The morphological values were found to be higher in Ondo State than those recorded in Ekiti and Osun States respectively. The differences between States are a reflection of the different agro-climatic and soil conditions of Southwestern States. These morphological differences expressed will be very useful for promoting domestication and commercialization of Parkia biglobosa in Nigeria.

Keywords: Growth parameters; Variation; Morphology; Parkia biglobosa; Southwestern Nigeria.

P. Dendup, Namgay, C. Lham

Winter Distribution and Poaching of Musk Deer, Moschus Chrysogaster and Moschus Leucogaster in Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 193-198
Jigme Dorji National Park is home to 2 species of musk deer: Alpine (Moschus chrysogaster) and Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster). In summer months, they inhabit alpine areas and in winter, they are found in fir (Abies densa) forest. They are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3171 masl to 4327 masl in winter. The study on musk deer distribution and poaching was carried out in all the potential musk deer habitats under 6 range offices in the month of October to December 2016. A total of 400 snares were removed following 84 days of active patrol by the park staff. One male musk deer was released into the wild which was caught in the snares set around Chutey Goempa forest. Traditional snaring method (leg and neck snares) with barricade were adopted by the poachers. Nylon ropes were the primary material used as snares. During the entire patrol period, two poachers were apprehended under Lingzhi Range, while attempting to set snares for musk deer. They were fined as per the provisions set under Forest Act, 1995. Annual anti-poaching activities should be carried out and anthropogenic activity should be strictly monitored to protect this endangered species.

Keywords: Agriculture; Income; Musk deer; Patrolling; Poaching; Protected areas; Snares;

Publication date: 15.03.2018


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Issue Cover

Volume 9, Issue 2, June 2018

Research articles

M. Bernabei

Historical and Cultural Framing of a Medieval Wooden Artwork through Dendrochronology

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 201-208

A small wooden cabin has been analyzed through dendrochronology. The artifact is a choir built by the lords to attend sacred functions while separated from the rest of the hall. The artwork was attributed to the workshop of Arduino da Baiso, but the wooden structure is not entirely convincing because of a stylistic incongruity between the lower carved part and the simple linear cusp, whose panels inlaid with floral motifs are very close to certain Florentine marquetry. Dendrochronological analysis demonstrates that the whole structure of the choir is coeval and that the panels of the two parts come from the same batch of trunks. This means that the entire choir was designed and built by the same workshop with fir wood, probably coming from the Tuscan Emilian Apennines.

Keywords: Dendrochronology; Inlay; Wooden sculpture; Medieval wooden art; Dating.

L. da C. Carvalho

Investigation of Silver Metal Clays using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 209-218
Precious metal clay is a popular material with jewellery makers. Its plasticity permits the creation of intricate designs practically indistinguishable from pieces produced by ordinary metalsmithing techniques. Metal clays may not have entered museum collections yet but will inevitably do so as single or composite objects - but should they be conserved like ordinary metal objects? This study examines the morphology and inorganic composition of two brands of silver metal clay using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Fired silver clay tablets were also submitted to Oddy testing in an attempt to determine the corrosive effect of any remaining organic binder. The results confirm that both brands of metal clay are composed of silver and they can be displayed and stored alongside other metal objects. However conservation treatments must be designed to take into account their porosity.

Keywords: Silver; Metal clay; Powder metallurgy; Oddy test; SEM-EDS.

M. El-Gohary, M.A. El-Magd

Influence of Acrylic Coatings and Nanomaterials on the Interfacial, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Limestone-Based Monuments. Case Study of "Amenemhat II Temple"

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 219-234
The present paper covers the study of limestone consolidants based on acrylic polymer (Paraloid B-72), Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (Nanolime) and the acrylic polymer mixed with Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles. The experimental study was conducted on limestone samples from El-Ashmunein archaeological area, Minia, Egypt. Some tests were done for studying the behavior of the consolidants used. The main goal of these tests was to estimate the consolidants efficiency and investigate the changes of physio-mechanical properties of the studied samples before and after consolidation, as well as after artificial aging. Therefore, laboratories measurements such as weight change, chromatic variations, physio-mechanical and SEM were performed. It was observed that there are noticeable differences among stone physio-mechanical properties of samples after treatment and after artificial aging according to the types of consolidant. It was found out, the best efficiency was the mixture of Paraloid B-72 and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, followed by Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (Nanolime) dispersion in ethanol 2.5%, then Paraloid B-72 2%. The obtained results showed a significant improvement in physio-mechanical properties of the samples treated by the mixture of Paraloid B-72 and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, e.g., increase in bulk density from 2.02 to 3.55 g/cm3 and decrease in porosity from 25.09% to 13.74%,as well as a noticeable increase in compressive strength.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; Consolidants; Powdering; Efflorescence; Compressive strength

A. Sahab, N. Sidkey, N. Abed, A. Mounir

Application of Anise and Rocket Essential Oils in Preservation of Old Manuscripts Against Fungal Deterioration

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 235-244
The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate as a microelement in combination with anis and rocket essential oils as alternative preservatives protecting old manuscripts. Two fungal isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride isolated from deteriorated manuscripts were chosen to evaluate the protective agents. The obtained results revealed that the concentration of 100mM of zinc ion completely inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum, whereas the growth of T. viride was reduced growth by 80.22%. The essential oil of anis and rocket were chemically analyzed by GC-MS. The main components of anis were anethole (91.06%) followed by Cyclooctasiloxane (2.29%), then Humulen (1.48%). While, the main component of rocket identified were 1-Isothiocyanato-4-(methylthio) butane (erucin = sulforaphane) (81.23%), followed by Carvacrol (5.27%) and Thymol (5.16%). The results showed that the main mechanical properties either elongation percent (%) or maximum force (N/mm2) retained their values due to treatment with ZnSO4 and fumigated by anise or rocket. .

Keywords: Essential oils; Metallic ion; Manuscripts; Fusarium oxysporum; Trichoderma viride.

A.G.M. Ali, A.A.A. Elsheikha, E.M. Elbanna, F.J.M. Peinado

An Approach to Conservation And Management of Farasan Islands' Heritage Sites, Saudi Arabia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 245-256
The Farsan Islands in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes a number of natural and cultural heritage sites, which are the focus of the attention of those interested in both local and international levels. This importance has made it necessary to monitor these sites and address them from a heritage and archaeological point of view by developing a proposal to manage and preserve them. The study defines the concept of conservation and management and propose a methodology for managing heritage sites by determining the importance of the site, its value and authenticity, monitoring the current use and their status, with providing information on the urban environment and development plans. This is followed by organizing the available information to monitor the site potentials', formulating the main objectives and identifying the means proposed to achieve them through an action and implementation plan. Therefore, this study aims at clarifying the importance of managing heritage sites through the following: highlight the importance of the Farasan Islands, develop a management plan to attain sustainable development, prepare a geographical database that covers all the heritage sites with the benefit of risk and crises management, conduct a SWOT analysis and support decision-making by relevant authorities.

Keywords: Farasan Islands; Heritage Sites' Management; Sustainable Development; Natural Heritage; Cultural Heritage.

D. Sharma, M. Singh, G. Krist, N.M. Velayudhan

Structural Characterisation of 18th Century Indian Palm Leaf Manuscripts of India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 257-264
This paper's aim to characterise the 18th CE Palm leaf manuscript of India`s southern and eastern part based on its structural elements. Investigative studies were carried using polarised light microscope and stereomicroscope for the samples drawn from Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Odisha. From the data, it is observed that the palm leaf species of Borassus and Corypha mostly drawn from southern and eastern states of India were extensively exploited for manuscript writing in whole of India. The microscopic observation also showed the weak zones present in the palm leaf manuscripts for suitable conservation measures.

Keywords: Palm tree; Corypha, Borassus; Palm leaf manuscripts; Anatomy; Deterioration; PLM; Isolateral; Dorsiventral

W.A. Mohamed, N.M. Mohamed

Analytical Investigation Of An Enameled Royal Tray

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 265-276

This research aims to investigate a precious colorful royal Ottoman silver tray from the Faculty of Applied Arts' Museum, Egypt. It incorporates two sophisticated methods of enamelling: champlevé and painture enhancing a tugra central disc. The chemical composition and deterioration aspects of the enamel and metal were identified using different examination and analytical techniques such as USB digital microscope, Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM?EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The tray showen different signs of deterioration, such as flaking, exfoliation, scratches, pits and colour alteration of the enamel while tarnishing covered the whole metal surface. Results proved that the tray is made of partially gilded silver-copper alloy. Gold residues were found on the frame and the handles. The enamel contains basically silica, potassium, sodium and lead. The analysis and examination results in addition to the tugra central disc enabled the accurate dating of the tray to the 19th century.

Keywords:Enamel; Metal; Examination; Analysis; USB digital microscope; pXRF; SEM-EDX; FTIR

P. Naeimi Taraei, A. Dolati, M.A. Emami

An Investigation of the Corrosion Behavior of Some Iron Artifacts Belonging to the Early Iron Age

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 277-290
The corrosion process of two iron dagger handles decorated with bronze strips found from the Ziviyeh area, which is one of the important Iron Age sites in the northwest of Iran, is thoroughly investigated. X-ray radiography was used to obtain the damages and corrosion zones of the artifact. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure of cross sections and to achieve structural details about the metal matrix and corrosion layers. The X-ray diffraction method was used to study the chemical characterization of corrosion products. The results of studies have shown that severe stress on bronze strips is caused by the formation of goethite and lepidocrocite compounds and their increased volume. Stress corrosion along the inter granules and cracking in some of the bronze strips are observed. The created cracks in the magnetite layers provided shortcuts to transfer the moisture and corrosive anions. The atmospheric corrosion of the remaining ferrous parts continued actively by dewatering corrosion products and creating wet blisters and holes filled with oxyhydroxide products. The formation of oxide compounds of copper and tin on the surface of bronze strips followed a slow process of uniform corrosion in bronze strips to a limited extent.

Keywords: Corrosion; Iron-bronze bimetallic artifacts; Early Iron Age; Iran; Ziviyeh

D. Kumar, J. Prasad, A.K. Pandey, M.K. Upadhyay

A Scientific Approach to Preservation of Cultural Heritage - Sib Sagar (Assam) Centrally Protected Monument

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 291-300
Sibsagar monuments in Assam, a north-east state of India is large masonry structure built using sandstone, terracotta bricks, lime surkhi mortar/plaster, mud and tiles. The monuments have been exposed to decay for centuries, some time for millennia. Due to long period of exposing the monument, environmental change, the monuments are continuously deteriorated. In this article, it is discussed important weathering and deteriorating agents like as temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, rain water, surface water, ground water, biological growth, and human vandalism along with a scientific approach to preservation of monuments. The efforts have been made that this approach to protection of the monument was significantly, weather resistance and good for health of the monuments.

Keywords: Deterioration factors; Preservation; Pollution; Silane/Siloxane.

T. Panda, N. Mishra, B.K. Pradhan, R. Mohanty

Live Fencing: An Ecofriendly Boundary Wall in Bhadrak District of Odisha, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 301-310
Live fencing, an age old and traditional practice, commonly found in rural areas of Bhadrak district, Odisha, India, but its importance remains unexplored and not yet documented. Exploratory surveys conducted in Bhadrak district, indicated that traditional farmers have vast knowledge about their live fencing practices and the species used. A total of 61 plant species belonging to 53 genera under 24 families are used by the people as biofencing, besides food, timber, fuel wood, medicine etc. Two groups of species are observed on the fence. The first groups of species (Ipomoea carnea, Bambusa arundinacea, Bougainvillea spectabilis etc.) are used primarily for protection and the second groups of species (Annona squamosa, Borassus flabellifer, Moringa oleifera etc.) are utilized for medicine, fruits and vegetables. Some promising fence species of this region are Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa vulgaris, Borassus flabellifer, Casuarina equisetifolia, Erythrina indica, Euphorbia tithymaloides, Ipomoea carnea, Jatropha curcas, Pandanus fascicularis, Pilosocereus arrabidae and Vitex negundo. This traditional biofencing practice is playing an important role in biodiversity conservation..

Keywords: APG III; Biofencing; Biodiversity conservation; Economic uses; Indigenous knowledge

K. Shaikh, S.Q. Memon, G.S. Gachal

A Comprehensive Analytical Study of Amphibian Habitats in District Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 311-318
An analytical study of physico-chemical parameters in amphibian habitats was carried out for three years (2011-2013) in four talukas (subdivions): Bakrani, Dokri, Larkana and Rato Dero of District Larkana which were explored distinctively for the search of amphibian habitats in agricultural fields. From 26 agricultural ponds (permanently inhabited by amphibians) water samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC, TDS, T-Hard, T-Alk, Cl, SO4, PO4, NO2, NO3, CO2 and K using scientific instrumentation and chemicals. Present study recorded value of most of parameters too high to support amphibian survival in all subdivisions. Variation in value of parameters was recorded every month with maximum upsurge in July, while minimum value of all parameters was noted in October, but it was duly recorded that even minimum value was still too high to meet favorable criteria. Yearly variation in water quality was also obvious as pollution rate was higher during year 2012, while comparatively lower level of the contamination was recorded during year 2011. Present investigation confirmed the existence of massive pollution into aquatic habitats in District Larkana which may affect amphibian fauna badly.

Keywords: Amphibian habitat; physico-chemical parameters; District Larkana;

U.K. Sen

Assessing the Social, Ecological and Economic Impact on Conservation Activities within Human-Modified Landscapes: A Case Study in Jhargram District of West Bengal, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 319-336
Sacred groves are tracts of virgin or human- modified forest with rich diversity, which have been protected by the local people for the centuries for their cultural, religious beliefs and taboos that the deities reside in them and protect the villagers from different calamities. The present study was conducted Copraburi (CSG) and Kawa-Sarnd (KSG) sacred grove in Nayagram block of the Jhargram district under west Bengal, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of sacred groves, its phytodiversity, social, ecological and economical role with mild threats. A total of 120 species belonging to 113 genera distributed 43 families from 24 orders were recorded from the sacred groves according to the APG IV (2016) classification, which covering 47, 26, 23, 24 species of herbs, shrubs, tree, climbers respectively. Moreover, both groves support locally useful medicinal plants for various ailments. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by fidelity level (FL) in the study area. Therefore, there is an urgent need not only to protect the sacred forest, but also to revive and reinvent such traditional way of nature conservation.

Keywords: APG IV; Biodiversity; Conservation; Ethnobotany; Sacred grove; West Bengal

B. Kabeer, M. Anwar, M. Rais, M.J. Jilani, M.A. Asadi, S. Abid, S. Bilal, F. Saleem, B.H. Ahmed, A.W. Yunus, S. Zahid, M. Anjum, P. Hejcmanová, M.K. Sheikh, A. Mehmood

Study of Feed Preference of Endangered Hog Deer under Captive Conditions in Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 337-344
Hog deer (Axis porcinus) are an endangered species in Pakistan, and there is little information about their feed preference in captivity. Seven animals were offered weighed amount of feed in two seasonal binary combinations of fresh fodder and one combination of grains. The fresh seasonal fodder included Oat (Avena sativa), Lucerne (Medicago sativa), Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Maize (Zea mays); whereas grains included Wheat (Triticum aestivum) whole-grains and Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds. Thirteen plant samples were collected from the wild habitat of Hog deer in Tunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary. Plant samples from wild and captivity were analysed through proximate analysis for Crude protein, Fiber, Fat and Ash contents. The outcomes concluded that in combination C1, the hog deer preferred Oat over Lucerne (p < 0.05) with a mean percentage±standard error (Mean±SE) of 90.757±0.401 percent for Oat and 9.243±0.401 percent for Lucerne. The animals preferred Maize (p < 0.05) in combination C2 with mean percentage and standard error of 91.657±0.368 percent compared to Sorghum with mean percentage and standard error of 8.343±3.083 percent. Chickpea was the preferred feed item (p < 0.05) against Wheat from the C3 combination with mean percentages and standard error of 92.2±0.453 percent and 7.800±0.453 percent respectively. The results of the proximate analysis revealed that the percentage of Crude Protein was 15.69±4.8 percent and 12.63±1.4 percent for plants in Captivity and plants in the wild respectively. The percentages of Fat content in plants in captivity and the wild were 3.34±0.86 and 3.37±0.41 respectively. The results showed percentages of Ash content in plants both in captive and wild,10.9±5.9 and 32.83±0.98 respectively; whereas, the percentages of fibre contents in the plants in captivity and wild habitats were 21.00±3.9 and 27.01±2.6 respectively.

Keywords: Hog deer; Feed preference; Proximate analysis; Captivity; Axis porcinus

N.H.N. Raikhan, M.Y.M. de Valda

Novel Polymer-Based Ca-Alginate Microbial Encapsulation with Chitosan Coating for Degradation of High Concentration of Bisphenol A

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 345-350
This paper represents our finding on new formulation of Ca-alginate beads preparation to support cell survival in the BPA biodegradation by extracellular laccase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22. The microencapsulation of the cells in Ca-alginate coated with 0.40% (w/v) chitosan has proved to enhance better survival in high BPA concentration (1200 ppm) with high activity and stable laccase production with BPA degradation over 80%. The coating has sized up the beads diameter to 116±0.01µm from 98µm (without the chitosan coating). The specific growth (?) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 in the Ca-alginate was 0.19 hour-1 suggesting that wellbeing of cells was excellent. The microcapsule yield (EY) was recorded as 94±0.01% proved that the bead's mechanical strength has been enhanced. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) resulted in very smooth non-pitting surface of Ca-alginate beads with chitosan coating. The coating process has increased the mechanical strength by 40% compares to non-coated beads which have ruptured slowly after 120 min. We are looking forward to research the mechanical properties of Ca-alginate over the residual stress and deformation of beads structure as an expansion of our academic report.

Keywords: Microbial coating; Biomaterial surfaces; Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22; Microencapsulation; chitosan Coating

P. Gupta, K. Sarma

Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Quality, Depth and Plant Species Diversity in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 351-360
Groundwater and green cover being two important resources indicating extent of unplanned urbanization in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India were considered in the study to understand the relationship between the two. Three vegetated land covers and one settlement area were selected with two sites under each land cover for the study. Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) was used to quantify and classify groundwater quality based on water quality index values. Groundwater depth was also measured at selected study sites. Total plant species diversity was calculated at each site and spatial distribution maps were prepared using the Kriging tool of ArcGIS environment. According to CCME WQI, sites under protected forest have water quality in the classification range of 90-100 which is excellent and good groundwater quality with depth going more than 50 meters below ground level. Also, protected forest area recorded maximum plant species diversity, decreasing from south to northern parts of the city.

Keywords: Groundwater; NCT of Delhi; Green cover; Kriging; Species diversity

M.I.H. Reza, S.A. Abdullah, S.B.M. Nor, M.H. Ismail

Landscape Pattern and Connectivity Importance of Protected Areas in Kuala Lumpur Conurbation for Sustainable Urban Planning

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 361-372
Protected areas in the cities play an important role for nature conservation and sustainable urban planning. In many occasions however development activities and urban planning ignore this ecological aspect. For sustainable urban planning, understanding the landscape pattern and connectivity importance of urban protected areas and its surroundings are important. Therefore, this study examined: i) landscape pattern changes of three protected areas - Bukit Sungai Puteh, Bukit Nenas and KL Golf Course and ii) their connectivity importance for biodiversity conservation of Kuala Lumpur conurbation. In this study three satellite images (Landsat TM 30 m resolution) of the study areas in 1988, 1996 and 2005 were processed and analyzed using ERDAS Imagine 9.2 and ArcGIS 9.3 to develop land use/land cover maps of the study areas in the three years. Landscape pattern of the maps was analyzed using landscape metrics calculated by Vector Based Landscape Analysis Tools Extension ( vLATE ) software. Conefor Sensinode 2.2 (CS22) software was used to measure landscape connectivity. Results revealed that over the decades the protected areas experienced highly pressure from anthropogenic activities. Generally, their size is very small and the natural areas within their boundary gradually reduced and fragmented. Analysis also revealed the transformation of natural landscape to the anthropogenic settlements inside all of the three protected areas. This suggests that these protected areas may have lost their capability to support valuable biodiversity if the situation persisted. However, the connectivity analysis showed that some of the large patches of forest outside the protected areas have connectivity importance. Therefore, there is a need for more protected areas in the Kuala Lumpur conurbation to protect valuable biodiversity and also the natural landscapes for sustainable planning of the city.

Keywords: Landscape ecology; Ecological integrity; Urban ecosystem; Biodiversity; Protected area; Landscape connectivity

Publication date: 15.06.2018


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Issue Cover

Volume 9, Issue 3, September 2018

Research articles

M. Yosri, M.Ali, F. Stanco, K. Talaat

Restoration of Silver Gelatin Prints in the Digital Era: An Innovative Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 375-388

One of the most common physical damage in silver gelatin prints is losses which occurs due to many deterioration factors (i.e. rodent attack, improper handling, fire, etc.). Conventionally, conservators compensated for the losses by making paper infills. While this method improves the physical structure of the treated print, it creates an unacceptable appearance due to the large contrast between the tone of the original photograph and the blank paper. Manual retouching of the missing part does not provide a better solution either, since it is achieved using a different medium (i.e. watercolors, ink washes, cont� crayons, pastels, and graphite). Many conservators are now aware of the advantages of digital restoration in treating old photographs. Hence, the importance of this study, which focuses mainly on modifying conventional methods used to treat losses by combining it with a digital restoration technique. The concept of this idea is solely based on the authors� vision. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed novel technique. Experiments were carried out on two old photographs of no significant value. Both photographs suffered from losses, particularly around the edges. Missing parts were digitally restored using Adobe Photoshop Software. Restored image data was then printed on Japanese paper using two types of printers: inkjet and laser. Samples or each printing process was exposed to artificial aging at a temperature of 80� and 65% relative humidity for a period of 120 hours to study the long-term efficacy of the proposed technique; as well as the effects it has on silver gelatin prints. Several examination and analysis methods were carried out for technique evaluation including: visual inspection, scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDX unit, attenuated total Reflectance Fourier transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric measurements, pH value measurement, and the Oddy test. Based on obtained results, laser printing is much more stable compared to inkjet printing; and therefore, it is considered the best option for this technique. All in all, one can conclude that the proposed technique is a very promising technique which can be efficiently used to restore losses in damaged photographic prints with slight effects on the original photograph.

Keywords: Silver gelatin prints; Losses; Infills; Digital restoration; Inkjet printing; Laser printing; Japanese paper

M. Ghorbani, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpuor

Mechanical Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibers Bio-Composite as a Long-Lasting Coating on the Paper Works

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 389-400
One of the most important issues for treatment of paper works is use of long-lasting (endurable) materials. In this study, Mechanical properties of Bacterial cellulose Nanofibers (BCN) for preservation of paper works are investigated. For this purpose, Suspension of BCN in Klucel-G polymeric matrix with doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 Wt% of dry matter were prepared and were coated on the pure cellulose paper (filter paper) by hydro-soluble casting method, and then tensile strength (TS) and folding endurance (FE) mechanical tests were performed. Also, in order to evaluate durability properties (long-lasting) of the cellulose fiber bio-nanocomposite, accelerated aging test was conducted in moist heat conditions. After performing mechanical test, obtained results were investigated and it was observed that the presence of this nanofibers in Klucel-G matrix, although lowers the initial mechanical properties (before aging), but increases durability of bio-nanocomposite compared to pure Klucel-G polymer matrix, and hence, as protective coatings, results in prevention of early aging. As a result, this prepared nanocomposite would have applications as a new reinforcing and endurable polymeric coating for preservation of paper works and prevention from further loss of their strength, and also there would be less need for retreatment.

Keywords: Preservation; Paper; Cellulose nanofiber; Mechanical characteristic; Endurable coating

M. Vagnini, M. Malagodi, F. Gabrieli, M. Azzarelli, F. Nucera, A. Daveri

An Integrated and Analytical Approach to Study of Mural Paintings: The Case of 'Lo Spagna' in Spoleto

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 401-412
The present work shows the advantages of a multi-analytical methodology based on non-invasive and micro-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the study of wall paintings located in San Giacomo�s church in Spoleto (Italy). The cycle of these mural paintings was realized by Giovanni di Pietro named Lo Spagna and his collaborators between 1526 and 1530. This study was focused on the characterization of pigments, in particular the blue ones, binders and degradation products to define the conservation state of these mural paintings and localize the repaints. Portable reflection infrared spectroscopy allowed us to identify the areas to be sampled in order to perform deeper analyses by scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

Keywords: Agroforestry; Biodiversity; Conservation; Livelihood; Structure.

A.C.A. Da Costa, F.D.N. Correa, G.D.S. Sant'anna, O. Hannesch, G.B. Tonietto, J.M.D.O. Godoy, R.D.A. Goncalves, M.T.S. Lutterbach

Iron-Gall Ink Studies on Acid and Alkaline Papers and their Relation to Cellulose Microbiological Degradation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 413-428
This paper describes the effect of various iron-gall inks on acid and alkaline papers and their relation to biodeterioration. Different types of papers were used in the present study, where several tests were performed: spot-tests for lignin and starch detection, chemical digestion to quantify total iron content, desorption studies to remove iron from the papers, followed by accelerated artificial aging, scanning electron microscopic studies and biodeterioration tests. Results indicated that lignin was only detected on acid papers, while starch was detected both on acid and alkaline papers. Treatment with calcium phytate proved to be an efficient process to remove excess iron from the inks. Scanning electron microscopic images showed distinct surface spreading of inks on the papers, depending on the iron content. Finally, in the absence of any other carbon source, papers strips containing iron-gall inks proved to be amenable to biodeterioration, indicating that chemical and biochemical deterioration simultaneously occur.

Keywords: Acid papers; Alkaline papers; Scanning electron microscopy; Biodeterioration; Iron content

S. Abdelaal

New Approach for the Study of Wall Paintings in Abu El Leaf Monastery, Fayoum Oasis, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 429-438
The Abu El Leaf Monastery, also known as Deir Abu Lifa, is considered one of the most important and famous monasteries in Fayoum Oasis, Egypt. It is located about two kilometers north of Quasr Al-Sagha Palace and about thirteen kilometers from Lake Qarun,one hundred kilometers from the capital of Egypt. [1-3].The Abu El Leaf Monastery was mentioned and founded by St. Panoukhius about 687 A.D.. Dir Abu El Leaf monastery was used almost from seventh to ninth centuries. It was seen as a safe haven for Christians seeking safety from religious persecution [4-5]. The monastery is quite rudimentary, its entrance is cut into the mountain and consists of small caves carved into cliff sides that can be difficult to reach. It has seven rooms containing some wall paintings and structures painted with some remains of pigments. Here we reported the investigations and analyses of the materials and techniques of the wall paintings in The Abu El Leaf Monastery using analytical techniques such as: Polarized light microscopy (PLM), X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM�EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Earth materials such as iron oxides based on hematite and goethite were the main findings, black carbon was also identified. The analyses of samples from different locations of The Abu El Leaf Monastery with XRD analysis indicated the presence of calcite, anhydrite, gypsum in the ground layer,and calcite in the plaster one. The pigments were identified by close visual investigation which showed that the paint layer was a very thin one, and that some parts were in very bad conditions such as some missing parts and some fallen others. Arabic Gum as organic binding medium suggests that tempera technique was used in The Abu El Leaf Monastery in Fayoum Oases.

Keywords: FWall paintings; Analysis; Conservation; Investigation; Pigments; Coptic; Monastery; Egypt.

N.H.N. Raikhan, M.S.A. Nur Nadila, A.R. Khairul Izwan

Identification of Species and Prevention of Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on Marine Structure

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 439-450
Accelerated Low-Water Corrosion (ALWC) leads to degradation of maritime steel structure and was grouped as one of microbial induced corrosion (MIC) type. This study was performed to isolate, identify, and characterized the growth of the microbes that has induced ALWC in order to decide for the best treatment using understanding of its potential EPS through biofilm formation. The isolation was done by using rust of the corrode metals collected from the steel structures and harbor walls which was exposed to the sea tides at the Port Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia. The rust collected was spread on Seawater Agar medium. Growth of five different species was recorded after 72 hours. The pure colonies were stained for Gram tests and were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ochrobactrum anthropic, Pseudomonas luteola, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Burkholderia cepacia using the APi KIT. The formation of the biofilm was studied to confirm the consortia-like-activity in the potential of causing the corrosion. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR) of the EPS from consortia biofilm has revealed 3 types of EPS namely EPS1, EPS2 and EPS3 with all three contain different amount of microbiomolecules such as peptides, carbohydrates and lipids in different ratio. The data proposed a very strong environment and interrelation between the microbiomolecules of the biofilm formation; suggesting a strong biofilm activity was taking place at the maritime structure. Understanding the EPS and biofilm dynamics of the 5 species will assist in the design of engineered anti-corrosion formulation for the ALWC in the related marine structures. Addition of 10% of nitrifying bacteria has proven to rupture EPS1, EPS2 and EPS3 with more than 50% lost in the total concentration of peptide, carbohydrates and lipids. This result indicated that microbial based techniques can be further studied for the purposes of corrosion prevention.

Keywords: Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC); Mechanisms; Bacterial growth; Induced microbial corrosion (MIC)

A. Kanth, M. Singh, S.C. Pandey

Optimizing the Rigidity of Gellan and Agar Gels for Cleaning Sensitive Acrylic Emulsion Painted Surfaces

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 451-462

This paper is based on the explorative study aimed at furthering the understanding of cleaning of acrylic emulsion painted surfaces and evaluating the effectiveness of gel cleaning with rigid gels without affecting the original paint layer. In the present study, the gellan and agar gelling materials were exploited for cleaning acrylic emulsion painted surfaces by optimizing their rheological properties using two application methodologies. The gellan and agar gels were used on soiled and unsoiled acrylic painted surfaces and microphotographed at 50x magnification using Dinolite digital microscope under normal, raking and ultraviolet fluorescence light. The experimental results have demonstrated better contact, no loss of water and fair cleaning results for gellan gel as compared to agar. The effectiveness of cleaning operation was also observed using ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDX in the present study. The results can be extended for cleaning of other sensitive painted surfaces.

Keywords: Acrylic paint; Cadmium; Cleaning; Gellan; Agar; Swelling

I.A.M.S. Wake, T.R. Soeprobowati, J. Jumari

Potential Vegetation in Supporting Conservation of Komodo Dragons in Ontoloe Island Flores Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 463-474
Potential vegetation in a small island ecologically plays an important role towards life sustainability of wild animals in the island. To find out the compositions, structures, and benefits of vegetation in forest ecosystem of small islands, a vegetation analysis was needed. The result of analysis was beneficial, helping to find out the condition of forest community balance, as well as to explain the interactions inside and between species. Vegetation observation was needed in Utilization and Protection block in Ontoloe Island, from littoral to terrestrial until the center of the island. A combination of Judgemental and Systematic Random Sampling was applied to determine the research sites in 2 blocks. In the Utilization block, 3 sites were identified, while in the Protection block, other 4 sites were determined. The distance of each site was 100 meters. In every site, there were 3 replicas at a distance of 50 meters. The vegetation data obtained was analyzed the Importance Value Index (IVI). The result of the research based of IVI obtained showed that Leucaena leucocephala dominated the tree, pole, and stake levels, Imperata cylindrica dominated in seddling level, whereas Rhizphora mucronata dominated the littoral area. The domination of invasive species of Leucaena leucocephala and Imperata cylindrica has threatened and reduced the vegetation diversity in Ontoloe Island. Biological controlling both 2 species could be used by introducing ruminant animals such as timor deer (Cervus timorensis), which in turn would conserve the ancient Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912) in Ontoloe Island, by providing enough feeds of Timor deer for komodo.

Keywords: Vegetation analysis; Ontoloe Island; Flores small islands; Komodo; Conservation; Timor deer.

G. Voncina, P. Chachula, M. Krobicki, M. Wawrzczak

Assessment of Environmental and Cultural Values of Jarmuta Hill In Szczawnica (Polish Carpathians)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 475-500
The aim of this article is to present the history and the current condition of Jarmuta Hill, situated in Szczawnica (Ma?e Pieniny Range, Western Carpathians in southern Poland) in relation to its environmental and cultural values. Authors have presented the hill on the background of Pieniny region as an intricate object where cultural heritage intertwines with natural values. It is also an important testimony to the biological and geological structure, where cultural values are of great significance, as traces of human activity date back to medieval times.

Keywords: Fungi; Bryophytes; Plants; Andesite; Nature protection; Biodiversity

M. Salehnia, B. Hayati, M. Molaei

Modeling Heterogeneous Preferences of Lake Urmia Basin Residents Concerned with its Restoration: An Application of Scale-Adjusted Multilevel Latent Class Model

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 501-512
One of the major challenges in the field of environmental valuation, is discovering the diversity of preferences and sensitivities that exist in the communities. During last years, environmental situation of Lake Urmia with all its geological, economic, social, water resources, climate and other aspects, has changed and followed a downward trend. Lake Urmia, as a public good, needs public contribution to prevent further deterioration. The success of restoration strategies is largely dependent on its acceptance by the beneficiaries and level of their participation. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a choice experiment for investigating public heterogeneous preferences on the non-market economic benefits of Lake Urmia restoration. A scale-adjusted multilevel latent class model is applied and a model with three latent classes at individual level, two classes at group level and two scale classes was selected as the preferred model. According to our results, most people who live geographically closer to Lake Urmia, belong to the same grand class. There were signs of homogeneity for all members of this grand class, while for other respondents, considerable heterogeneity could be observed. We have evidence from our results that individuals' characteristics, location and response certainty may provide explanations for heterogeneity.

Keywords: Choice experiment; Heterogeneity; Scale-adjusted multilevel latent class model; Lake Urmia

M.S.H. Mondal

Risk Factors Associated with Destruction of Sundarbans Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh: A Review from Climate Change Perspective

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 513-522
Sundarbans mangrove forest is the largest continuous mangrove track of the world which is shared by Bangladesh and India. The Sundarbans reserved forest of Bangladesh constitutes around 51% of the country's protected area and more than 3 million people depend on its resources. But the forest is under threats by anthropogenic interventions and climate change. The objective of this paper is to synthesize published works on the impact of climate change on Sundarbans. This paper is based on the desktop review of relevant literature focused on the impact of climate change on Sundarbans. Snowball sampling method was used to select relevant literature. This article conceptualizes from the spatial and temporal point of view. Along with the anthropogenic pressure, climate change has sped up the annihilation of Sundarbans though increasing level of salinity, decreasing freshwater supply, irregular rainfall and sea level rise. The frequency and severity of landfalls of cyclonic storms over the coastal zones increased in the last couple of decades. Projection suggests that one-meter rise in sea level is enough to make Sundarbans disappear from the map of Bangladesh. Comprehensive conservation measures need be taken at the local, regional, national and international level to protect the world's largest mangrove forest.

Keywords: Sundarbans reserved forest; impact of climate change; sea level rise; Bangladesh.

D. Mansir, N. Kasim, I.S. Mat Radzuan

An Exploration of Disaster Risk to Cultural Heritage Assets: Towards Effective Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 523-536
Owning to the losses incurred from the occurrence of certain events at Cultural Heritage Sites (CHS's), conservation of its Cultural Heritage (CH) assets is reported to be threatened. The losses while qualifying for disasters to an affected CHS have necessitated proactive measures in the conservation of CH assets (individual and collective) aimed at reducing the risks of their exposure to eventual disasters. Foremost in such measures is the assessment of Disaster Risks (DR) whereby good practice (assessment of DR) conceptualises it (DR) to being a collective interplay of four variables namely: hazards, vulnerability; capacity and exposure. While deeper insights to the manifestation of each variable is deemed to be gained through a technique that investigates each variable in a multi-level approach, researches in the CH domain are yet to fully apply such approach (particularly to all the variables). Therefore, this research examined the four DR variables with a view to explore their multi-level manifestations in the domain of CH conservation. With the aid of a structured questionnaire and by means of conducting a survey, data was collected from 204 respondents at The Historic Commercial and Residential Zone (Old Quarter) of the Core Zone of Malacca CHS in Malaysia. Using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0, a 5-Step Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried out to analyse the inputted data. The achievement of certain threshold requirements by the results of this research indicates the fulfilment of some objectives of EFA. For instance, the reduction of manifest items is evident from the 47 manifest items having factor loadings ? 0.6 as against the total of 58 manifest items initially used in the study. Additionally, while the 47 manifest items for all 10 factors retained fulfilled convergent validity (loadings of manifest items ? 0.6), the loadings for the rotation of all 10 factors fulfilled discriminant validity (loading ? 0.3). These 10 factors retained spread across the four DR variables as follows: hazards (natural and human induced); vulnerability (human, material and management-based); capacity (human, material and management-based); and exposure (heritage values and community assets). The EFA technique used in this research has enabled the multi-levelling of each variable within the sphere of variable-to-factor and then factor-to-manifest item. The implication of the approach to multi-levelling of variables is for gaining deeper insights of DR to CHS conservation. However, it is worthy stating that the manifest items used in this study are bound to vary both within and across CHS's, thus, further studies could embark on a conceptual framework for the assessment of DR that could apply to specific contexts of DR towards the effective conservation of CHS's and its CH assets therein.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage Assets; Cultural Heritage Sites; Disaster Risk; Exploratory Factor Analysis; Manifest item; Variable.

S. Khetwani, R.B. Singh

Groundwater Dynamics In Marathwada Region: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis For Sustainable Groundwater Resource Management

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 537-548
Groundwater resource, especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics is highly vulnerable to climate change and increased human needs. The rising groundwater overdraft is a big challenge for ecological and socio-economic wellbeing of the earth. This study investigates the spatio-temporal patterns of groundwater overdraft and ongoing practices for water conservation in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state in India. The GIS technique has been used for mapping spatio-temporal variability of groundwater overdraft in the region. The region has seen the spatial shift and expansion of groundwater overdraft from northern Marathwada region towards southern Marathwada region, over the sub-districts where the groundwater overdraft was not visible between the years 2001-2005. The water scarcity of the region has attracted the attention of masses and various stakeholders of the society which further gave way to the community based water resource management in the region.

Keywords: Marathwada region; Groundwater recharge; Groundwater overdraft; Community; Water conservation; Sustainable development

A.Balazsi, F. Pacurar, A.Mihu-Pintilie, W. Konold

How do Public Institutions on Nature Conservation and Agriculture Contribute to the Conservation of Species-rich Hay Meadows?

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 549-564
In recent decades, to the conservation of species-rich hay meadows throughout Europe has been given major attention. Yet, those habitats are at risk mainly due to intensification or abandonment, even in the countries where extensive traditional farming still exists. The member states still face difficulties on different levels when implementing EU policies. In this paper we (i) compare the implementation of EU conservation policies, (ii) analyse the gap between scientific knowledge and knowledge of public administration and (iii) follow the collaboration between institutions for nature conservation and for agriculture in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg and Romania. We applied a comparative case study design and methods, analysing five aspects for each case: (1) public administration structure, (2) management of protected areas, (3) monitoring of habitats and species, (4) reward systems and (5) stakeholders' awareness. The results demonstrate that even though the structure of public administration in Germany enables multi-level governance, a functional system itself seems insufficient to assure the favourable conservation status of species-rich hay meadows. In Romania, organizational changes may be needed in the ministerial structures that are responsible for nature conservation and agriculture in order to increase institutional stability and capacity. In both cases, a conservation or agricultural approach to species-rich hay meadows in terms of formal institutional understanding (legislation) cannot cover the complexity of those semi-natural systems; thus it is suggested that there needs to be some mechanism for connecting social-ecological and cultural dimensions.

Keywords: Species-rich; Hay meadows; Nature conservation policy; Management plans; Agri-environment; Public administration.

C.R. Deb, Z.P. Kikon

Distribution Prediction Model of an Over Exploited Medicinal Plant (Paris Polyphylla Smith.) in Nagaland, India and Introduction of New Concept Model (Mosaic Model)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 565-576
Paris polyphylla Smith. is a perennial herb, over exploited for its medicinal value and other anthropogenic activities like traditional method of Slash and Burn' (Jhuming) farming practice has reduced much of its habitat. As such the need to describe its potential habitats arises; this is achieved with Climate Suitability Modeling. The model was developed using 12 presence points. Temperature of coldest quarter and precipitation of warmest quarter act as an important determinant in the development of the model, these climatic variables correspond with the climatic conditions in the predicted areas which is necessary for post dehiscence maturation of seeds. Ground truthing work was being carried out to ascertain the highly predicted areas and plants were also introduced in areas predicted as suitable as well as in areas predicted as not suitable to confirm the usefulness of the model. The model also corresponds with an experiment on seed germination by temperature stratification. The study gives a different approach on validation of habitat modeling in addition with the statistical significance by observing plant response introduced in areas predicted suitable and unsuitable as well as matching plant physiology and the influences of the climatic variables on it. This work introduces a new concept modeling named 'Mosaic Model' for those species which are sensitive to different climatic conditions. In this concept model a big area can be fragmented into small areas depending on different climatic conditions. Model can be prepared for each area followed by stitching of these small models into one model (Mosaic model). This model would be able to predict the distribution of a species growing in diverse environmental condition.

Keywords: Distribution prediction model; ENM; Mosaic model; Nagaland; Paris polyphylla; Conservation of threatened species; Threatened plant.

A.I. Semeniuc, I. Popa

Comparative Analysis of Tree Ring Parameters Variation in Four Coniferous Species: (Picea Abies, Abies Alba, Pinus Sylvestris and Larix Decidua)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 591-598
The objective of this study is to compare yearly variability of the tree ring parameters of coniferous species (spruce, fir, Scots pine and larch) in the north-eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). The microcores were collected at the end of the vegetation season in 2012. Micro-sections were prepared in order to analyses the tree-rings characteristics for the last three vegetation seasons. To emphasize the influence of species and interannual climate variation on tree growth, the following parameters were used: total tree ring width, number of tracheids and mean tracheids dimension. All the species showed different dynamics of the tracheids number, as well as of the tree-ring width in the three studied vegetation seasons. The highest growth in term of cells number was observed in Picea abies, whereas a reduced cells number but with higher dimensions was observed in Larix decidua. The variability of radial growth of the xylem in relation with the climate was discussed for each species separately.

Keywords: Cell number; Climatic factors; Tree-ring width.

G. Kamh, N. Klitzsch

Testing Single and Mixed Resins for Consolidating Moderately Weathered Limestone of Archaeological Sites, New Applied Techniques

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 599-610
Weathering is one of the most aggressive processes acting on natural and artificial materials world-wide. So, this paper aims to examine the efficacy of three resins highly recommended as consolidating material for oolitic limestone. These resins are namely; Ethyl Silicate, Premal-AC33, and Paraloid-B80. Petrographic, mineralogical, geotechnical properties, and durability investigations have been conducted for this limestone before treatment with such resins. The treatment with these resins has been conducted through two regimes namely; repeated brushing, and total impregnation within each resin at each level of concentration. Samples' surface color, resin's penetration depth, rock's geotechnical and durability properties' limits are the main basis of examining these resins. The net result indicated that Paraloid-B80 dissolved in acetone, ethyl silicate "dissolved in ethyl alcohol" mixed with Paraloid-B80 "dissolved in acetone or toluene" verified the best results as stone consolidating material. Rock's pore size distribution is one of the main parameters controlling rock's durability before and/or after consolidation with a given resin. Resin's viscosity controls resin's penetration depth within a given rock.

Keywords: Oolitic limestone; Ethyl silicate; Primal-AC33; Paraloid-B80; Consolidation

Publication date: 15.09.2018


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Issue Cover

Volume 9, Issue 4, June 2018

Research articles

S. Andreou, P. Sklavos, A.A. Kokkinos, D.T.G. Katerelos

Restoration of a Casella Brothers’ Acoustical Guitar and Construction of an Identical Copy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 613-628

Musical instruments consist a significant part of the global cultural heritage. Everywhere in the world such important artefacts can be traced and preserved for future generations as an important part of human heritage. A century old acoustical guitar was found in the Kefalonia Island, Greece, that was survived from time wear and earthquakes attacks. In this paper the procedure followed for the restoration of this guitar is presented. Old musical instruments, even the restored ones, should be treated carefully and stored appropriately, in order to be protected. Thus, the idea is to construct exact possible copies that could present publically their performance that is the sound they produce. Such a copy was designed and constructed for the above mentioned guitar and the two instruments were evaluated for their mechanical and acoustical characteristics.

Keywords: Musical Instruments; Guitar restoration; Replica; Identical guitars.

P.V. Alfieri, R. Lofeudo, G. Canosa

Impregnant Formulation to the Preservation, Protection and Consolidation of Wood Heritage Assets

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 629-640
The protection of cultural heritage is an integral part of the world's material wealth. The cultural heritage, movable and immovable, together with the natural environment, represents values that contribute to the education and social culture of the community. It also has a significant economic impact because, it represents the basic prerequisite for a tourism industry. Therefore, the modern developing based on non-polluting technological products for the protection of patrimonial is needed. Also, it is necessary to build a bridge between the basic knowledge generated as a product of scientific research and applied science. The knowing of what kind of deterioration occurs and how it impacts the physical-mechanical properties of the materials are important issues and, that must be considered so that the constructions made can be adequately conserved and/or consolidated. Wood was treated with an innovate formulation based on silanes (methyltriethoxysilane, MTES and n-octyltryethoxysilane, OTES) to achieve the protection and the consolidation of the heritage assets. The performance of treatment about dimensional stability, fire and biodeterioration/biodegradation resistance was investigated. It was concluded that the treatment resulted effective as a protective and consolidate lasur system based on silanes by surface treatment for wood heritage assets.

Keywords: Heritage; Old wood, Consolidation, Treatment for preservation; Restoration; Protection

Y. Yuan, J. Mi, X. Wang, Z. Fu, C. Meng, H. Zhang

Evaluation of the Organosilicon Materials for Ancient Grey Bricks Preservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 641-652
Grey bricks were produced manually and used as the major traditional building materials in ancient China. However, the characteristics of grey bricks make them vulnerable to water, salt and other environmental factors. Organosilicon materials have been tested as the effective protective agents for silicate based stones. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of different organosilicon materials on grey bricks by total and half immersions. The penetration depths, appearance alterations, water adsorptions, hydrophobic properties, porosities and compressive strengths were measured after the treatments. The samples were also experienced the salt solution immersion, freeze-thaw and UV aging tests to evaluate the durability of different preservation treatments. It is found that different characteristics of the organosilicon materials lead to different preservation performances, but it remains difficult to determine an appropriate material for the preservation of ancient architectures built with grey bricks, considering the consolidation performance, water resistance property and durability.

Keywords: Grey bricks; Organosilicon; Preservation; Deterioration and degradation cycles

A. Sánchez Ortiz, E. Rodríguez González de Canales, O. Cantos Martínez, J. Sánchez de Lollano Prieto

Comparative Study of Aqueous Cleaning Systems for Wax Sculptures

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 653-667
The accumulation of particles of dirt on the surface of ceroplastic sculptures is a major cause of deterioration and has negative consequences for the conservation of the collections. To eliminate these deposits of contamination, the specialised literature proposes the use of a range of physical and chemical methods. This article evaluates various aqueous systems, with and without surfactants, that are specifically adapted to this type of object, including an emulsion formulated using a gel thickened with a polyacrylic acid derivative. All of the cleaning systems tested have been chemically analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), in addition to observing the surfaces under optical magnification before and after applying the cleaning substance. The results obtained are presented based on a qualitative analysis of the effectiveness demonstrated by each of the systems tested.

Keywords: Ceroplastics; Sculpture; Scientific collections; Conservation; Cleaning test; Solubility.

E. Cantisani, C.G.R. Tognon, S. Caciagli, B. Salvadori

Outdoor Art: Cataloguing the Public Contemporary Sculptures in Florence

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 429-438
This paper reports the results of a project aimed at documenting contemporary outdoor sculptures in the city of Florence (Italy). A total of 80 public outdoor sculptures dating from 1910 to 2010 and including works by Folon, Botero, Moore, and Pepe, located over an area of 102 Km2 were catalogued in the various districts of the town. A comprehensive file was created for each sculpture with information on the location, artist, materials, historical and technical notes, state of conservation. Interviews with living artists (Onofrio Pepe, Piero Gensini, Roberto Coccoloni, Silvano Porcinai, Antonio di Tommaso, Roberto Barni, Giuliano Vangi, Marcello Guasti) were also carried out in order to glean information on the materials and techniques used, to better understand the “meanings” of their artworks and to obtain recommendations regarding the conservation procedures. The importance of information collected from artists together with the indications relating to the conservation of contemporary artworks are well known at an international level, aimed at a fruitful interaction between the arts and sciences as well as at planning appropriate maintenance procedures.

Keywords: Outdoor public contemporary sculpture; Catalogue; Materials; Interview

M.K. Khalaf, M.M. Abdeelmegeed

Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Masonry Building Materials in Historic Military Towers in Alexandria - Egypt: A Case Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 677-688
Historic masonry structures must have a full characterization of its building materials before starting in any rehabilitation procedures. As the same in medicine field, where, any treatment procedures must be preceded by a correct diagnosis. Mechanical and physical properties assessment gives important information about the current situation and a full characterization of building materials used in historical masonry structures. Limestone and lime or gypsum mortar is the most common masonry types used in construction of historic military structures in Alexandria, Egypt. The paper is concerned with assessment of building materials used in historical military towers in Alexandria - Egypt, which over the years its building materials suffered a lot of damage phenomena due to various causes (internal and external factors). The methodology, calibrated on historic tower No. 3 located in Alexandria –Egypt dating back to19th century. The methodology followed in the paper to assessment of masonry used in military structures allowed not only to assessment and record their properties but also to define and record the relation between building materials properties, surrounding environmental conditions and deterioration phenomena they present.

Keywords: Masonry; Military towers; Building materials; Damage; Deterioration phenomena; Sampling; Petrographic properties

T.A. Salah, N.S.A. Hagaggi

Study of the Effect of Extract Salix Mucronata Thunb Leaves as a Bacterial Antagonist on Some Bacteria Isolated from the Archaeological Manuscripts

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 689-696

This paper focused on studying the bacterial deterioration of the manuscript at Al-Azhar library in Cairo, Egypt. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the two bacterial isolates AN1 and AN2 were Acinetobacter indicus and Exiguobacterium aurantiacum respectively. The present study investigated the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Salix mucronata Thunb leaves against the two isolates. It is shown that the extract at different concentrations exhibited considerable effects on the growth of the two isolates. So, we suggested that Salix mucronata Thunb leaves extract can be used as a natural growth control to reducing the degradable effect of these bacterial causative agents that attack books and manuscripts kept in libraries.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Deterioration, Library; Manuscript; Salix mucronata Thunb

M. Singh, S.V. Kumar

Characterization of Ancient Lime Plasters of the Historical Sea Fort of Sindhudurg

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp.697-708
The paper reports the formulation of a new lime plaster on the basis of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the plasters of Sindhudurg Fort in western India. The plaster samples extracted from the fort’s walls and mount were studied using petrological microscope, X-ray fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), X- ray diffraction studies (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis. The granulometric analysis indicates that the plasters were prepared by mixing coarse to medium grained sands that clearly show fracture pointing towards mechanical mixing. The FTIR spectrum of the plaster indicates atomic disorder in the anthropogenic calcite crystals. Thermal analysis shows presence of re-carbonated lime as part of the binder is perfectly crystallized. Compact microstructures were observed under SEM with aggregates well embedded in the matrix. Thermal analysis of the plaster shows presence of re-carbonated lime as part of the binder is perfectly crystallized. Compositional similarities were noted between the mount and fort wall lime plasters, which were prepared by mixing aggregates of basaltic origin with varied grain size and shape. The present study is a holistic approach to prepare compatible plasters required for the restoration of the site and similar nearby monuments.

Keywords: Sindhudurg; Sea Fort; Lime plaster; Aggregates; Calcite; Quartz.

S. Abdelaal

New Approach of Characterization and State of Painted Reliefs In Petosiris Tomb, Tuna El-Gebel, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 709-722
The aim of this study is to identify the components and assess the current state of the painted reliefs in the funerary tomb of Petosiris, which is located in Tuna el-Gebel in the province of Minia, Southern Egypt. The tomb has been dated to the late 4th and early 3rd centuries. It is considered one of the most important archaeological tombs in Egypt because its inscriptions include some of the Pharaonic rituals. These inscriptions were considered an important archaeological record, since the containment of historical information, Pharaonic scenes, rituals and those painted reliefs have been carried out with a very impressive technology in the implementation and use of pigments. The tomb and its painted reliefs suffered from severe damage factors that threaten and even foreshadows the disappearance and loss of these inscriptions. Accordingly, the aim of the work in this article was to study the techniques that were used in the painting process, assess the conditions of the painted inscriptions, the characterization of the pigments and the organic medium used. A range of modern and sensitive examination and analysis methods have been used to provide us with information about the components of the tomb and painted compositions. The analytical study was performed using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy / Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The examination was carried out using optical microscope, polarized microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The investigation of samples showed the use of Egyptian blue pigment as a pigment for blue color. Hematite used to get the red color, Goethite for yellow, a mixture of carbon and hematite for black and Celadonite ferrous as pigment material for green. Moreover, egg yolk used as organic binder in the painted reliefs of the tomb.

Keywords: Tomb; Painted Reliefs; Pigments; Organic Medium; XRD; Egypt.

M.S. Legas, B.T. Mamo

Impact of Human Activities on Wildlife: The Case of Nile Lechwe in Gambella National Park Southwest Ethiopia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 723-732
Assessing human threatening factors of wildlife is the base in determining and proposing appropriate conservation measures of biological diversity. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of human activities on the wildlife of the Gambella National Park, Southwestern Ethiopia from October 2015 to March 2016, specifically the case of the Nile Lechwe (Kobus megaceros). The data in this study was gathered using Structured Questioners among the sample of 384 respondents. In addition to the questioner survey, 6 focus group discussions one per each study villages were held in order to investigate the major human factors that affect the Nile Lechwe population. Data on the threatening factors was compared by chi-square test and descriptive statistics using SPSS version 20 software. Out of the 384 respondents, agricultural investment, illegal hunting, overgrazing, rice cultivation in the area and habitat loss were the most predominant human factors that affect the Nile Lechwe. Agricultural expansion and, respectively, illegal hunting were the highest human impact on the Nile Lechwe. Most of the respondents replied that they used hunting as a primary and secondary professional activity across the study villages. Before designing and implementing any development investment, particularly large-scale agricultural expansions, the government and other stakeholders should give consideration and attention to the rapidly declining natural resource beside to the development. Therefore, designing appropriate eco-friendly managements with options must be adopted to mediate the effects and minimize future impacts.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anthropogenic disturbance; Habitats; Nile lechwe; Gambella National park; Wildlife

B. Ngilangwa, R. Meney, C Msafiri

Exploration of a Future Scene for Community Based Tourism in the Southern Part of Serengeti Ecosystem: A Case Study of Mwiba Wildlife Ranch, Meatu, Tanzania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 733-748
Community Based Tourism (CBT) is one of the fast growing segments in Tourism industry, and the most acceptable tool for sustainable development especially in the developing world. Through CBT, local communities earn revenues that directly improve their livelihoods and managing sustainably the biodiversity. Furthermore, it improves the level of transparency, governance and technology transfer among themselves. This study aims to explore the role and the potentiality of community based sustainable tourism scene of Mwiba wildlife Ranch, which is located on the Southern part of the Serengeti ecosystem. The study took Mwiba wildlife ranch as the case study due to the fact that it is the first ever wildlife ranch in Tanzania and it is operated through public-private partnership whereby the land is solely owned by Makao village. The study results show that the ranch contributes significantly in improvement of socio-economic development for the Makao village communities and Tanzania in general through the payments of several fees, provision of full time and part time employments and in the conservation of both endangered and threatened wildlife species. Finally the study identified some conservation and management challenges such as livestock encroachment, boundary dispute and lack of transparency and accountability in terms of the uses of tourism benefits that accrued from the ranch.

Keywords: Mwiba Wildlife Ranch; Makao Open Area; Friedkin Conservation Fund Limited; Mwiba Holdings Limited; Environmental education; Community-Based Tourism and Community involvement.

O. Bajpai, V. Dutta, L.B. Chaudhary, J. Pandey

Key Issues and Management Strategies for the Conservation of the Himalayan Terai Forests of India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 749-760
The Himalayan Terai forests are a major habitat for a variety of terrestrial biodiversity, with distinct extents of ecosystems, abundance and distribution of species and coverage of protected areas. This lowland region is mainly characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, Sal forests, wetlands, and swamps. The Terai eco-region, shared by India and Nepal, is one of the prominent areas of India from a biodiversity point of view. It is situated along the foothills of the central Himalaya range, in the north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, with a forest covers of ca. 10,000 km2 in India. The Terai eco-region contains dense forests, savannahs and grasslands, providing critical habitats for many endangered large mammals, including tigers, elephants and rhinoceroses. Currently, the forest of this region is losing its biodiversity because of natural and anthropogenic factors. Because of the high agricultural productivity of the Terai areas, rising aspirations for better living conditions, development activities, industries and road & rail networks, the degradation and fragmentation of these forests have increased in recent years. This paper presents key issues and management strategies for the conservation of the Himalayan Terai forests of India, along with some suggestions to overcome the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Keywords: Natural disturbances; Anthropogenic disturbances; Conservation management; Himalayan Terai

A. Sabdono, O.K. Radjasa

Early Assessment of the Organochlorine Pesticides Pollution of Coral Reefs Ecosystem Along Jepara Coastal Waters, Java Sea

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 761-770
The contamination of seawater, sediments and coral tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have presumed serious problems due to their persistence and toxicity. The research objectives were to determine the pesticide usage, occurrence, and toxicity of OCPs on Jepara coast. A questioner observation was used to inventory the types of pesticides used. Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Photometric Detector (FID) detector was used to analyze selected pesticide concentrations of samples. The acute chronic exposure was used to investigate the toxicity effect of organochlorine on corals. The findings survey showed that farmers were most commonly using Gramoxone in the Jepara coastal regions, followed by Carbamate, Sevin, Converse, and Dupont. The farmers used no more OCPs.The pesticide analyses showed that the detected compounds in the coral samples were Lindane (γ-BHC) and Endrine with the range concentrations from ‹nd to 0.011 and from ‹nd to 0.15mg·g-1, respectively. There were no organochlorine compounds determined in the water and sediment samples. The toxicity study showed that corals stressed and dead after 24h organochlorine exposure. The OCPs could kill corals in low concentration in the brief exposure. While small amounts of a contaminant organochlorines can still lead to detectable in Jepara coastal waters.

Keywords: Coral reefs; Pesticides; Organochlorine; Jepara; Java Sea

N.H. Nik Raikhan, A.R. Khairul Izwan

The Impeding of Acidithiobacillus Thiooxidans Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC) Using Bacterial Biofilms Mediated Interactions

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 771-776
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans has been confirmed to promote for a fast microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on a surface of a metal coupon in 7 days of incubation with oxygen reliable in the peptone medium. This research is conducted to clarify the mutual interactions between biofilm and the metal substratum and to further the study on the direction of biofilm influence on the metal as into a corrosion inhibition. The use of symbiont biofilm between Actinomycete and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been proved to inhibit the MIC process as early as the third day through growth performance of the biofilm formation. We have studied the impeding process using the mediated interactions and have reported that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans cells are smaller and thicker apart from its slower growth due to the formation of the biofilm of the microbial cell consortia. All the 3 species have significantly shared the environment, using the peptone in the medium and did not cause any pit formation or started any corrosion sign on the metal surfaces, suggesting that the great tolerance between the species has achieved the aim to reduce bio-corrosion using biofilm consortia. This evidence proved that MIC can be eradicated using other microbes or microbial interaction at the beginning of colonization.

Keywords: Biogenic sulfide corrosion; Microbial induced corrosion (MIC); Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans; P. aeruginosa; Biofilm; Metal corrosion.

M. Bheemalingappa, M.V. Suresh Babu, B.R. Prasad Rao

Diversity and Phytosociological Attributes of Trees of Baratang Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 777-794
In the present study we have analysed the tree species diversity and other phytosociological attributes of trees of Baratang Island, located in Middle Andamans. A total of 234 tree species representing 164 genera and 59 families were recorded in the sampled units. A total of 8657 tree individuals were enumerated. The range of tree density among the grids is 162-403 trees per 0.5ha. The most dominant species are Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Rhizophora apiculata, Gyrocarpus americanus, Tetrameles nudiflora, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lagerstroemia hypoleuca, Terminalia bialata, Bambusa schizostachyoides, Rhizophora mucronata and Parishia insignis. The mean+SD basal area in the sampled grids was 21.59± 13.70 m2 ha-1 and ranged as low as 3.58 m2ha-1 to high as 65.03 m2ha-1. The overall population structure of tree species shows a reverse J-shaped population. The study gives an understanding of the diversity and pattern of tree population which will be of immense use in future forest conservation and management.

Keywords: Baratang Island; Middle Andamans; Tree species; Phytosociological attributes.

A.V. Tache, I.C.A. Sandu, O.C. Popescu, A.I. Petrisor

UAV Solutions for the Protection and Management of Cultural Heritage. Case Study: Halmyris Archaeological Site

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 795-804
Long-term cultural heritage protection is an essential condition for the sustainable development and preservation of territorial identity. Good documentation and registration of heritage objects allows for knowing, preserving and passing them to the future generations. Cultural heritage registration currently uses different techniques and methods of documentation, especially in archeology. In order to document archaeological sites and obtain their 3D digital models, several methods are possible, such as the combination of terrestrial recording and photogrammetric aerial methods, using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - drones. GIS and GPS were used to obtain the contours coordinates for several archaeological sites in Tulcea County from 2007 location data from a geospatial system for the location and protection of archaeological sites in conjunction with the UAV technology (a multi-rotor drone), along with a high-precision GPS (GPS Rover GNSS RTK ComNav T300), and specific software like Mission Planner and Agisoft Photoscan, for their accurate fit into the digital map of the county, aiming for a better protection of the historical site. The final result is a 3D model of Halmyris Citadel (Murighiol, Tulcea County), which can be used to help preserving the archeological site, and serve as a base for future on-site restoration works.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; 3D Modelling; Global Positioning System (GPS); Archaeological site; orthophoto; Digital Elevation Model (DEM).

Y. Trisurat

Planning Thailand’s Protected Areas in Response to Future Land Use and Climate Change

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 805-820
Only limited research on conservation planning to mitigate the impacts of synthetic land use and climate change have been conducted in Asia. The objectives of this research were to determine shifts in habitats of 17 mammal species resulting from land-use and climate change scenarios in 2050 in northern Thailand and to assess the proposed expansion of protected areas to mitigate the predicted impacts. Qualitative vulnerability assessment of species was determined by using national conservation status, shifts in distribution and coping capacity of protected areas. The potential expansion areas were identified using gravity model. The results indicated that the existing protected areas cannot guarantee the long-term survival of many species. Most selected species would substantially shift their current distributions and will be upgraded from moderate to high-risk. The proposed expansion areas of 5,200 km2 or 3% of the region would substantially minimize the risk level and increase the average coping capacity of the protection of suitable habitats from 82% as the current plan to 90%. Such patches adjoining existing protected areas should be included in the current system, while patches that are relatively far should be managed as stepping stones or habitat corridors to facilitate movements of wildlife in the landscape.

Keywords: Adaptation; Conservation planning; Mammal species; Species distribution; Species vulnerability; Thailand

K. Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, C.C. Palici, A. Stachurska-Swakoń, V. Nedeff, I. Sandu

The Causes of Disappearance of Sword Lily Gladiolus Imbricatus l. from Natural Stands - Synthesis of Current State of Knowledge

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 821-834
The sword lily Gladiolus imbricatus L. is a clonal plant covering Central and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean, Caucasia and West Siberia. The aforementioned species is included in numerous national Red Books or Lists due to the progressive decrease of stands. The present paper reviews the factors threatening the occurrence and condition of Gladiolus imbricatus populations in natural localities. The largest threat is connected with transformation of meadows and expansion of urban areas.

Keywords: Sword lily; Natural localities; Population abundance; Threatened species; Molinion.

S. Hemeda, M. Khalil, A. Shoeb, A.A. El Aziz

The Effectiveness of Nano Materials and Nano-Modified Polymers for Preservation of Historic Brick Masonry in Rashid, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 821-834
The Rosetta, (Rashid City) of Egypt is considered the second-largest open-air museum after Cairo city. Historic brick masonries are exposed to aggressive environmental and geotechnical conditions especially the ground water rise factor. The building materials in the historic buildings in this city are suffered from many factors and forces of damage and instability, which caused the structural and out of plane deficiencies. Al-Mahalli mosque is considered the largest central mosque in the city is threatened of damage and structural problems as a result of mechanical, physiochemical and biological deterioration factors. From the mosque survey we found that the ground water, salt weathering, rain as well as earthquake, vibration levels, pollution and human damage factors are the most important ravages that threaten the ancient buildings in rational overall domestic and mosque in particular. The assessment of the current state and the development of appropriate restoration strategy were performed including the analytical study of the main construction materials. The pilot study was performed on samples of fired bricks using some traditional protective and consolidating materials as well as some nano materials to choose the best one in the treatment and maintenance of historic fired brick. The evaluation methodology is performed using a set of stress analysis of the treated specimen processed and compared with non-treated or standard samples that were not exposed to the processors, as well as appoint resistant of red bricks using the ultrasonic velocity test PUNDT also the physical properties of the samples including the micro porosity and finally using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarizing light microscopy (PLM) to investigate the treated samples. The results proved the superiority of the samples that have been strengthened by nano silica concentration of 1.5% and nano titanium concentration of 1.5% with Wacker Bs15 concentration in 20% with water, which was given the code (J).

Keywords: Rashid; Mechanical properties; Physical properties; Red bricks; Nano materials

Publication date: 15.12.2018