Print ISSN:   2067-533X
Online ISSN: 2067-8223




ARCHIVE: Volume 7 - 2016

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Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2016

Research articles

L. Liu, W. Shen, B. Zhang, Y. Han

Determination of Proteinaceous Binders for Polychrome Relics of Xumi Mountain Grottoes by Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunofluorescence Microscopy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-14
Xumi Mountain Grottoes is a famous cave temple in China. There are a large number of polychrome mural paintings and clay sculptures in Xumi Mountain Grottoes. It has been an important issue to identify the composition of binders in polychrome relics in order to understand traditional painting technology used in ancient time. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), which possess high sensitivity, high specificity and cost affordability, were utilized to determine proteinaceous binders in polychrome murals and clay sculptures in Xumi Mountain Grottoes. Animal glue and egg white, which were most likely to be used as binders in ancient Chinese relics, were identified by the existence of their corresponding main components, namely mammalian collagen and chicken ovalbumin, respectively. Positive signals of mammalian collagen and chicken ovalbumin were rapidly detected by ELISA and distribution of the detected protein was identified by IFM in the real sample of Xumi Mountain Grottoes. This is the first time that the proteinaceous binders for the polychrome layers of mural painting and clay sculpture in Xumi Mountain Grottoes are studied.

Keywords: Xumi Mountain Grottoes; Animal glue; Egg white; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Immunofluorescence microscopy

Y Ismail, A. Abdrabou, M. Abdallah

A Non-Destructive Analytical Study and the Conservation Processes of Pharaoh Tutankhamun´S Painted Boat Model

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 15-28
The boat model studied here belonged to Pharaoh Tutankhamun (1337-1347 B.C). It consists of several wooden pieces connected with different wooden joints and is decorated with painted layers. This study aims to use non-destructive analytical techniques in order to provide a deeper understanding of the painting and assembly techniques and to identify the wood species. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in the condition of the object and the previous restoration interventions, so as to establish suitable treatment methods. Visual observation and assessment were done to understand the deterioration aspects, to be illustrated by a 2D Program, as well as the jointing methods, which were illustrated by the 3D.Max Program. Imaging techniques using IR Fluorescence and IR False Color, Optical Microscopy (OM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study. Studies that include the identification of wood species and the characterization of pigments, as well as the previous restoration materials were made. The white layer of the boat cabin was confirmed to be in a deteriorated and unstable condition with many areas insecurely attached, with flaking and fragile areas. Other forms of damage included stains, splitting and separated pieces. Moreover, some parts had been wrongly assembled in the previous restoration interventions. Soon after its transportation from the Egyptian museum storage No 55 to the Wood Conservation Laboratory of the Grand Egyptian Museum-Conservation Center (GEM-CC), conservation techniques were applied with high accuracy, in order to conserve the object, including reattaching, lifting the white layer of the boat cabin, cleaning, removal of previous restorations, dismantling of the boat cabin panels and reassembly of the separated pieces, as well as filling cracks and separations. Finally, the conservation procedures that were applied were extremely effective for the stability and reinforcement of the boat model, which became ready for display or storage in the Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM).

Keywords: Non-destructive; Model boat; Tutankhamun; IR luminescence; XRD; Conservation

F.M. Helmi, Y.K. Hefni

Using Nanocomposites in the Consolidation and Protection of Sandstone

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 29-40
In the last few years, nanoparticles have widely been used in the field of restoration and conservation of artworks. The minimizing of particles size into nanoscale, results in better properties from the large grain size materials of the same chemical composition. In this paper, pure and nanoparticles modified silicon-based polymers, were used to consolidate and protect sandstone samples. Silicon dioxide (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, were added to different types of the silicon-based polymers (Wacker OH 100, Dow Corning MTMOS, Mega Protec 1, Mega Protec 2) in order to improve their physiochemical and mechanical properties, which produced a significant improvement in the ability of the polymers to consolidate and protect the stone. The properties of the treated sandstone samples were evaluated comparatively by visual appraisal, colorimetric measurements, measuring of static contact angle of water droplets on the surface of the samples, total immersion water absorption, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscope. Results demonstrated that the addition of nanoparticles to silicon-based polymers enhanced their capability to consolidate and protect the sandstone samples.

Keywords: nanoparticles; Silicon dioxide; zinc oxide; hydrophobic; superhydrophobic; nanocomposites.

W. Noshyutta, E. Osman, M. Mansour

An Investigation of the Biological Fungicidal Activity of Some Essential Oils Used as Preservatives for a 19th Century Egyptian Coptic Cellulosic Manuscript

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 41-56
The main goal of this work was to investigate the biological fungicidal activity of some commercial essential oils of tea tree, lavender and thyme, which were to be applied as alternative preservatives for ancient manuscripts. To achieve our goal, model samples of cellulosic paper were made to mimic the original manuscript, which was a Coptic manuscript known as Pascha (the sacred week), dated 1812. Twenty-three microorganism strains were isolated representing twelve fungal taxa and one bacterial taxa which were identified in all collected and analyzed in samples, which included Trichoderma viride, Penicillium roqueforti, Eurotium chevalieri, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus subtilis. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the growth of the associated microorganisms and their effect on the sample paper structure. Different concentrations of the aforementioned essential oils were applied on the mimic samples, which were then subjected to accelerated ageing corresponding to 25 or 50 years of a natural one. To characterize the applied oils on the samples, we made records by using FTIR-ATR, color measurements according to CIELAB system, and analyzed the mechanical properties of the tested samples. The results revealed that the samples treated with either tea tree oil or lavender oil, had ΔE values that decreased as the oil concentration increased. However, when samples were treated with thyme oil the reverse was obtained. For the treated samples exposed to 25 years of light ageing, we noticed that the higher obtained tensile strength and % elongation of treated samples followed the ranking order: thyme > lavender > tea tree oils. For the treated samples that were exposed to 50 years of natural light ageing, we observed that almost all tensile strength and elongation values of the treated samples were higher than that of the untreated ones. Moreover, we noticed that the inhibition of growth of the microorganisms was obtained at a low concentration of tea tree oil (0.25% v/v). This treatment was esthetically acceptable for archaeological objects, because it was colorless, transparent and safe. Based on the results we obtained, the optimized essential oil, which is the oil with an appropriate concentration, was selected to be added to the cellulosic pulp used for the leaf casting. Moreover, the same optimized essential oil was applied on the paper samples to be used as separators between the ancient manuscript pages. After dismantling, cleaning, leaf casting and rebinding of the damaged parts, the manuscript is then preserved.

Keywords: Essential oil; fungicidal; Coptic manuscript; leaf casting; binding; conservation

C. Corti, L. Rampazzi, P. Visona

Hellenistic Mortar and Plaster from Contrada Mella near Oppido Mamertina (Calabria, Italy)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 57-70
Recent archaeological investigations conducted at contrada Mella, an alluvial terrace near Oppido Mamertina, in southwestern Calabria, have uncovered the remains of a town that was settled by the Tauriani, an Italic people, between the third and the first centuries BC. A unique deposit excavated in 1990 and 1992 yielded numerous fragments of mortar and painted plaster associated with Hellenistic pottery and other cultural materials. Chemical analyses of samples of these fragments, point to the use of aerial mortars with hematite and calcite as pigments. The characteristics of the mortar and painted plaster found at contrada Mella are comparable to those of similar materials from Locri Epizephyrii, the closest Greek city on the Ionian coast of Italy, and from Hellenistic sites in Calabria and Sicily. They provide new evidence for interior decoration from the houses of the Tauriani.

Keywords: Contrada Mella; Hellenistic; Tauriani; Mortar; Wall decoration

E. Kotoula

Semiautomatic Fragments Matching and Virtual Reconstruction: A Case Study on Ceramics

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 71-86
Artefacts’ reconstruction is a fundamental part of conservation and one of the most common remedial conservation activities with great contribution to archaeological research. The manual procedure for fragments’ matching is a painstaking, time- and space-consuming operation. As a result the development of working methodologies for digital refitting of fragments is of fundamental importance for archaeological research and conservation practice. This study presents a comparative analysis of manual and digital reconstruction, which has never been explored even if computer scientists have achieved many developments in the field of digital refitting. Results indicate the parallels between manual and digital processes in terms of durability, integrity and practicality. Also, in order to provide methodological directions to conservators, three different semi-automatic fragments matching approaches based on their effectiveness in managing the project and alignment of fragments were used A combined strategy, making use of different pieces of software, is recommended. In addition, the modelling techniques for digital restoration were described along with the uses of the virtually restored artefact. Faenza maiolica, black-glazed, Gnathian and coarse ware ceramics were used as case studies.

Keywords: Digital refitting; Virtual reconstruction; Digital restoration; Fragments’ matching

P. Spiridon, I. Sandu

Museums in the Life of the Public

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 87-92
The present paper aims to emphasize how, in the latest years, more and more events and museum practices focus on the identification of new ways of engaging more individuals into the museum life, even exploring the possibility to extend and adapt the museum activities in the life of communities, according to the actual realities. In this regard we selected a number of relevant institutions in the field (museums, cultural forums etc.) and analyzed their innovative museum practices regarding the visitors and their engagement into the life of the museum. The results revealed that to attract more visitors and to increase public engagement, a museum must to be as a living entity who adapts its needs to the present cultural, economic, social, educational and technological context.

Keywords: heritage; communities; refugees/migrants; display; interaction; participation; dialog; digital technology

L. Bejenaru, M. Danu, S. Stanc

Overall Evaluation of Biological Remains Discovered in the Chalcolithic Site (Cucuteni Culture, Vth-IVth Millennia Cal B.C.) of Costeşti (Iaşi County, Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 93-100
Research of pollen, spores, phytoliths and animal remains was performed in the Chalcolithic settlement (Cucuteni culture, Vth-IVth millennia cal B.C.) of Costești (Iași County, Romania). Archaeobotanical data are correlated with those of archaeozoology in order to achieve an understanding of the site formation processes, the economic and environmental contexts of the Chalcolithic settlement. Palynological analysis testified the presence of deciduous trees such as linden and oak. Willow, alder and birch probably inhabited banks of river whose course goes right near the site. Regarding the herbaceous plants, there were identified both spontaneous taxa and other taxa which could be cultivated. Cereal inflorescence phytoliths have been identified. In the archaeozoological sample, butchering and the manufacturing originated the fragmentation of remains. The majority of animal remains are from domestic mammals, with the predominance of sheep/goat, followed by cattle and pig. The hunting of wild mammals is less important in the food provisioning system; as game species, red deer, wild boar and aurochs are dominant. Harvesting of molluscs is testified by a very small number of remains. According to these data, the economy of the Chalcolithic settlement from Costești was based on the plant cultivation and animal husbandry, and also on forest and even aquatic resources.

Keywords: Archaeobotany; Archaeozoology; Chalcolithic; Cucuteni culture; Costeşti

L.D. Alfaro, V. Montalvo, F. Guimaraes, C. Saenz, J. Cruz, F. Morazan, E. Carrillo

Characterization of Attack Events on Sea Turtles (Chelonia Mydas and Lepidochelys Olivacea) by Jaguar (Panthera Onca) in Naranjo Sector, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 101-108
In this study, we examined sea turtles consumption by jaguars and their temporal and spatial distribution at Naranjo beach, Santa Rosa National Park Costa Rica. We include information about sea turtle consumption rate by jaguars and whether this represents a threat to the population on the study area. We monitor jaguar predatory behavior on the sea turtles Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas between August 2012 and September 2013. We located predation events and measured all turtles preyed carapace width (ACC) and length (LCC). Mean ACC of killed turtles was lower than the ACC population mean. Killed turtles LCC mean and population mean were the same. The beach was not used uniformly as sea turtle hunting area and it was shared by at least three jaguars. Jaguar hunting impact on sea turtle populations is very small in comparison to fishing by-catch. C. mydas and L. olivacea are important jaguar food source because they are easy to hunt and they have a high biomass. Sea turtles can be key preys when other prey availability is low and/or the period when female jaguars are feeding their cubs.

Keywords: Carnivore; Predatory behavior; Seasonal resources.

M. Camino, S. Cortez, A. Cerezo, M. Altrichter

Wildlife Conservation, Perceptions of Different Co-existing Cultures

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 109-122
Different cultures have different relationships with nature, and these relationships have many dimensions which shape people’s perceptions towards nature. Therefore, perceptions may vary between different cultures within the same territories. Understanding each culture´s relationship with the surrounding environment is of extreme importance for the correct allocation of conservation resources, and for the development of efficient conservation actions. In this study, we discuss the perceptions of two different cultures regarding large and medium-sized mammal conservation in an endangered region of Argentina, called the Dry Chaco. These two cultures are peasants, or Criollos, and the indigenous Wichís; we assessed and compared their perceptions on local extinctions, conservation problems, conflicts with wildlife and possible solutions for these issues. We found that although both cultures inhabit the same territory and report local extinctions, their perceptions on which species were locally extinct differed. Another difference was the perceived time-period in which disappearances occurred. We also found that most respondents recognize conservation problems and possible solutions, although these differ between both cultures. Management for conservation of these species should be specific to each culture, and understanding local perspectives allows the inclusion of a broader view of human needs, perceptions and knowledge in conservation programs.

Keywords: Local perceptions; Chaco; Indigenous; Peasants or Criollos

A.I. Petrisor, R. Petre, V. Meită

Difficulties in Achieving Social Sustainability in a Biosphere Reserve

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 123-136
In the management of resources, the cost of opportunity plays an important role decision making when resources are finite and their use restricted. In natural protected areas restrictions can lead to social issues when the local economy suffers: the displacement of people, unsupportive attitude towards conservation or illegal activities. This situation is important in biosphere reserves, which should be learning laboratories for an integrated economic, societal, cultural and environmental sustainability. This paper analyzes the example of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in Romania, aiming to find correlations between social and environmental issues. The results indicate that urbanization, deforestations and abandonment of agriculture are the leading transitional dynamics of environmental degradation, and ageing and migration of population (especially from rural areas) to better job opportunities are the main societal challenges; they seem to be inversely correlated, although not statistically significant. Rural communities, with a better environmental status, experience social issues, and urban areas, with a better socio-demographic status, face environmental impacts. Spatial analyses show that isolation, essential condition for safeguarding the pristine environmental status, is a major obstacle for development. The solution consists of needs-based policies aimed at preserving traditional values and increasing environmental awareness through education.
Keywords: Conflict; Conservation; Development; Demography; Society; Biosphere reserve; Danube Delta; Sustainability

J. Brahma, B.K. Brahma

Nutritional and Phytochemical Evaluation of Some Wild Aromatic Plants Used as Sources of Food and Medicines by the Bodo Tribes of Kokrajhar District, Assam, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 137-146
Throughout history, natural products from plants have played sustaining roles in the lives of humans, especially for food sources and for medicinal products. Oral interviews with local and village elders have enumerated 50 species of economically important wild aromatic plants used as vegetables, spices, condiments and medicines for curing different ailments. Of these six aromatic plants were analyzed to evaluate nutritional and bioactive compounds. The results revealed that it contains moisture content in the range of 66-87% of fresh weight, ash content 20-43% of dry weight, crude protein in 12-25% of dry weight, total solids in 13-34% of dry weight, carbohydrates in a range of 7-42% of dry weight and crude fat in 0.68-2.0% of dry weight. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of bioactive compounds like steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and trace amounts of micro nutrient elements. Thus, preliminary study and qualitative analysis draws attention on the signifance of these phytochemicals with respect to the role of wild plants in traditional medicinal system and the need for further studies in treatment of many diseases.

Keywords: Wild plants; Bioactive compounds; Bodos; Ethnobotany; Kokrajhar district

C.R. Deb, T.L. Sangtam, N.J. Jamir

Clonal Macropropagation of Bambusa Nagalandiana Naithani through Culm Segments and Branch Cutting: An Endemic Bamboo of Nagaland, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 147-154
Bambusa nagalandiana Naithani is an indigenous bamboo found in Nagaland and Mizoram, India. The species is a sympodial bamboo and identified by its yellow culm with green stripes. Because of its beautiful architecture the species is used for ornamental purpose, construction work and furniture making. The young shoots are also used as vegetable. Due to narrow distributional range and high demand for various purposes the species is under threat in the natural habitat. Present communication reports a successful attempt to develop protocol for macropropagation from culm segments and branch cuttings of this economically important threatened bamboo species.

Keywords: Bambusa nagalandiana; Culm splitting; Endemic bamboo; Macropropagation; Nagaland; Ornamental bamboo.

Y. Kurniati, Marniati, Rahmayani

Plants as Flagship Species in Tourism Destination: A Case Study at Mount Mahawu Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 155-160
A preliminary survey was conducted by researchers who found that seven out of ten postpartum women in Krueng Bineh still use traditional medicine for treatment after giving birth and they believe in the efficacy of traditional medicine. This study aims to investigate factors related to the traditional medicine utilization for postpartum women in the Krueng Bineh Village, Tangan-Tangan, South West Aceh District, Indonesia. Our study used analytical research with the sectional analytic approach. The population under study was 22 postpartum women who resided in the Krueng Bineh village. The Sample used is a total sampling. This research was conducted on the 5th – 14th of July 2013. The data we collected was gathered through questionnaires. Research results showed that there was a relation between knowledge and the traditional medicine utilization of postpartum women counted for 10.9and the relation between trust and the traditional medicine utilization to postpartum women counted for 13.5.Moreover, we found a relation between family income and the traditional medicine utilization for postpartum women which counted for 10.9. To summarize, we would argue that knowledge, trust and family income are the decisive factors in the utilization of traditional medicine by the postpartum women under study.

Keywords: Traditional medicine; Knowledge; Trust; Family income; Post partum women

N. Nordin, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, M.F.M. Tahir, A.V. Sandu, K. Hussin

Utilization of Fly Ash Waste as Construction Material

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 161-166
In Malaysia there are six coal fired electric power station for the time being. These power stations usually can produce a high amount of electric power of more than 2400 MW. In peninsular Malaysia, there are four coal fired electric power station that produced at least 1400 MW of electric power. Coal fired electric power station is one of the cheapest electric production compared to the amount of power that can be produced. These power stations are still not enough to cater demand due to future development. Fly ash is a waste byproduct of electric power plants which use coal as their fuel source. Previously, a coal based power station disposed the waste amounts out of their equipment by burying it in landfills or returning it to strip mines. The growth in power plants that use coal as the source of fuel has produced hundreds of millions of tons of ash every year. With the advancement of technology and the economic crisis in Malaysia, the development of infrastructure in the use of new structural materials has been promoted but overall with unsatisfactory results in terms of cost savings. However, this problem can be solved by using waste industrial waste such as fly ash as a source to replace the existing building materials which is cost effective. The main aspect of waste management is to prevent the production of waste through minimizing the waste produced and also re-use of waste materials through recycling. The paper will be discussing the potential of managing waste of fly ash by utilizing it as construction materials.

Keywords: E

S. Dutta, M.K. Hossain

Infestation of Imperata Cylindrica L. and its Impacts on Local Communities in Secondary Forests of Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-Park, Chittagong, Bangladesh

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 167-180
Sungrass (Imperata cylindrica) infestation is reported to be detrimental to the biodiversity conservation in forest ecosystems, though it has some socio-economic importance. The present study investigated the infestation of Sungrass in Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-park, Bangladesh as well as its contribution to local peoples’ socio-economic condition. The study was conducted by reconnaissance survey, random quadrate survey, analyzing soil samples and social survey. Sungrass infested areas were categorized into ten landuse areas in the Eco-park. Soil pH was maximum (5.7) in exposed Sungrass fields, whereas minimum was found in eroded soil areas (4.2). The soil of Sungrass fields with horticultural plantation sites was represented by maximum organic matter (7.23%) whereas organic matter was minimum (3.02%) in the soil of Sungrass infested cactus plantation. Local people cultivate and harvest Sungrass for their livelihood, roofing, fodder and cultural needs. Seasonal variation exists in harvesting the Sungrass with a maximum (62%) in winter season (November to February). Farmers generate an average income of 4,800 BDT by selling Sungrass in the winter season. People opined that within the Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-park area, Sungrass fields are increasing every year. This also leads to an increase of fire incidences in the forests of eco-park. Though the plant has some contribution to socio-economic conditions of local people, its infestation seems to be detrimental to the Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco-park of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Imperata cylindrica; Ecosystem; Botanical garden; Eco-park; Sungrass; Sitakunda; Conservation

Publication date: 15.03.2016     
Available online: 01.03.2016


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Issue Cover

Volume 7, Special Issue 1, 2016

Selected articles presented at
Green Conservation of Cultural Heritage
International Workshop

Rome, 27th – 28th of October 2015

Guest Editors:
Andrea MACCHIA, Loredana LUVIDI, Fernanda PRESTILEO,
Mauro F. LA RUSSA and Sivestro Antonio RUFFOLO

[ cover page ]

E. Balliana, G. Ricci, C. Pesce, E. Zendri

Assessing the Value of Green Conservation for Cultural Heritage: Positive and Critical Aspects of Already Available Methodologies

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 185-202
In recent years, the use and the necessity of green materials and methodologies have been promoted in the field of cultural heritage, aiming to a low impact on the operator health and the environment. For a long time, in restoration and conservation science, the main goal was searching for the most compatible solutions with the materials of the artefacts not thinking sometimes about the possible issues for the operator and/or for the environment. Recently, thanks also to an increasing attention to a respectful consumption of environmental resources and waste management, new scientific methodologies have been proposed for more sustainable and green interventions, promoting furthermore the concept of preventive conservation. The aim of this work is to present an overview about some of the most interesting technologies and methodologies already available as alternative to traditional and more invasive/dangerous restoration treatments towards artefact, operators and environment. In particular, the methods described in this paper have been critically analysed focusing on which might be the positive and negative points considering the convenience of use by the restorers and the reasons why these methods are still not well known and diffused.

Keywords: Eco-compatibility; Cultural heritage; Risk-assessment; Human health.

F. Fratini, D. Pittaluga

Sustainability of Architectonic Conservation Yards in Environmental Protected Areas: The Case of the Zenobito Tower in Capraia Island

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 203-212
The issues addressed in the restoration project for Zénobito’s Tower, in Capraia island, are a stimulus for a broader debate on sustainability of architectural preservation interventions in delicate environmental contexts inside protected areas. As a matter of fact the preservation intervention on the tower and the absolute preservation of the environmental context impose a severity rarely practiced, even in restoration. The tower is three and half hours walking distance from the village, in a wilderness area where in some periods even walking is forbidden, due to protection of nesting birds. The sea in front of it is a marine protected reserve, with severe limits on access by boat. The authors set the goals of the projects for restoration of this heritage as material conservation of the tower; minimal intervention; reversibility or retractability; usage of eco-friendly materials. All this led to a serious reflection and a careful evaluation of every factor that may have an impact on the environment. This paper includes a theoretical discussion, puts several questions and suggests guidelines that should be valid in all similar situations.

Keywords: Cultural and natural heritage; Restoration; Material for preservation interventions; Minimal intervention; Protected areas; Eco-friendly materials.

L. Pujia

Cultural Heritage and Territory. Architectural Tools for a Sustainable Conservation of Cultural Landscape

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 213-218
The Cultural Heritage rules state that “the preservation and the enhancement of the cultural heritage contribute to strengthen the memory of the national community and of its territory” and in this context the cultural path tries to re-contextualize — unlike the “musealization” — the relationships among materials and immaterial values, that got lost and belonged to the cultural landscape. The paper is based on the concept of “cultural landscape” in reference to the urban and territorial changes; in order to understand the identity meaning is fundamental to know the history and the places change and finding an underlying theme in the sparse traces of the heritage that is a project subject to understand and make territories readable. The interpretation of Europe as a common property can lie in an international field research aimed at finding common languages inside a wide territorial framework. The device of the cultural landscape is often an abstract context connected to the tourist development; in this case the identity of a place is strengthened by immaterial aspects — the popular traditions — more than its physical and spatial aspects. This research takes from the beginning the design point of view as a field of investigation. The paper would investigate about the relationship between the architecture of the path and the territory, by prefiguring new design scenarios for the widespread and hidden cultural landscape. In the research, the cultural path is considered as a design device that can make a place understood by the territory arrangement; the cultural path is investigated in the physical and material features proper of Architecture. Many contributions of History of Architecture are useful to create a planning framework for those who work in this field. The study wants to address the future planning proposals of cultural paths towards true consequences belonging to the architectural subject.

Keywords: Architecture; Heritage; Landscape; Cultural route; Path; Territory.

M. Yoshida, Z. Giertlova, S. Kirnberger

Trend Colour’ Green’ in Cultural Heritage: Simulation Games for Introducing and Living the Green Change in Museums

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 219-226
Museums, preservation strategies and conservation methods need to be ‘green’ as ecologic and economic aspects have become a much-noticed issue in cultural heritage care. Implementing successfully “green” and “sustainable” concepts over the long term is a matter of decisions and consensus achieved within an organization. Museum staffs need to respond to changing circumstances by integrating security awareness and behavior in their daily museum work. In individually modeled scenarios participants undergo complex and challenging situations and learn how to cooperate with each other and to develop solution strategies. Two case examples of simulation games implemented for museum staff show a motivating and activating effect on the participants. These positive experiences and sense of achievement gained in the simulation game is a basic prerequisite for an internally induced change to a “green” working culture. If we assume that preventive conservation conforms to what we understand as “green” conservation we will be frequently confronted with conflicting goals as preventive conservation concerns different levels and divisions within an organization. Simulation games specifically adapted to museum needs are an appropriate method to strengthen team structure and internal communication. Utilizing simulation methods helps to break down barriers.

Keywords: Simulation games; Emergency preparedness; Preventive conservation.

E. Marin, C. Vaccaro, M. Leis

Biotechnology Applied to Historic Stoneworks Conservation: Testing the Potential Harmfulness of two Biological Biocides

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 227-238
Within restoration practices, the biodeterioration is a common and hard problem, in particular on historic stonework conservation, where, together with weathering actions, enlarge porosity and increase the decay. The chemical action with biocides is the more used method to remove biological patina on monumental stone but, during the time, that approach reveal hazardous environmental and health impacts. In recent time, innovative biotechnology methods have been developed but used only to a minor extent; that is due to the less information about the interaction of the new products with stone material. The aim of the research is to propose innovative and safe bio cleaning products for historic stonework conservation and define the level of security in the interaction with stone material. The two biological biocides, that has not been investigated previously, are Natria, a Bayer products based on pelargonic acid, and New FloorCleaner, based on Bacillus species. The specimens for our research are made up from an historical stone material (earlier twenty century handmade bricks) and we used the Normal UNI 11551-1:2014, the European protocol for the evaluation of a cleaning method in the Cultural Heritage. Our results show that biocleaning products are harmless: overall, the research demonstrates the opportunity to use these products in the conservation field, for the treatment of biological patina of historical brick, because do not highlight problems and damages and are environmentally sustainable.

Keywords: Historic stonework; Preservation and Restoration; Pelargonic acid; Bacillus species; biological biocides.

F. Palla, G. Barresi, A. Giordano, S. Schiavone, M.R. Trapani, V. Rotolo, M.G. Parisi, M. Cammarata

Cold-Active Molecules for a Sustainable Preservation and Restoration of Historic-Artistic Manufacts

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 239-246
In the last decades biotechnology research provides sustainable alternatives to traditional procedures for preventive preservation of cultural assets. Recently, bioactive molecules (BMs) isolated from marine invertebrate organisms have been isolated and tested for bioremoval of protein layers (BMP) or to controlling microbial colonization (BMA), acting at temperature lower than 30°C. The Protease or Antimicrobial activity was tested on ad hoc assembled specimens and on different historic-artistic manufacts. In bio-removing protocol BMP molecules were applied as gelled solutions, in order to guarantees a selective action, respectful of constitutive materials and manufact integrity. Peculiarity of Protease bioactive molecules is the temperature of action, lower than 30°C. Instead, BMAs molecules have been tested to control bacteria and fungi colonization in laboratory specimens. In our hypothesis these novel molecules provide an important contribution to the development of innovative protocols safe both for the environment and conservator health, representing a valid alternative to traditional methods according to the preventive conservation and "Minimal Intervention" concept in restoration procedures.

Keywords: Biodeterioration; Biodegradation; Biocleaning; Protease; Antimicrobial molecules; Risk assessment

R. Caminiti, L. Campanella, S.H. Plattner, E. Scarpellini

Effects of Innovative Green Chemical Treatments on Paper. Can They Help in Preservation?

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 247-258
Increasing attention is paid to sustainability in conservation. Among all the kinds of objects those ones made of paper (e.g. documents, books, artworks) present the important problem of their increasing brittleness due to the inherently acid nature of many modern papers; research for sustainable restoration materials and methods in this field is particularly needed. Our contribution relies in the preparation of innovative materials and in the exploitation of their effects on paper for application in restoration. A research line regards paper consolidation and we extracted and tested the polysaccharide fraction from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima for this purpose. Another research approach focuses on green ionic liquids; these not-toxic compounds, which can help in cleaning operations, are synthesized and their effect on paper explored; here a cholin-glycine based one is considered. Testing was carried out on plain paper samples (pure cellulose) subjected to accelerated aging (dry heat at 105°C) in order to consider stress response of treated samples. Treatment effects were evaluated with regard to pH and colour changes, FTIR spectra and mechanical behavior (folding endurance). While this latter gave interesting contrasting responses to that one by ionic liquid treatment, clear positive results were obtained for restoration with the polysaccharide extract.

Keywords: Paper; Cleaning; Consolidation; Ionic liquid; Cholin-glycine; Polysaccharide extract; Arthrospira maxima

A. Zacharopoulou, G. Batis, V. Argyropoulou, E. Guilminot

The Testing of Natural Corrosion Inhibitors Cysteine and Mature Tobacco for Treating Marine Composite Objects in PEG400 Solutions

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 259-264
The paper presents the testing of two nontoxic corrosion inhibitors for treatments of marine metal composite artefacts in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 400 solutions. The effectiveness of L-cysteine and mature tobacco to slow down the corrosion of copper and iron alloys during PEG400 treatments was investigated using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were carried out on polished wrought iron and brass metal samples taken from the 1868 shipwreck ‘Patris’ in 20% (v/v) PEG400 in deionized water with and without each corrosion inhibitor. L-Cysteine was found at a concentration of 1% (w/v) to act as a cathodic corrosion inhibitor for brass in 20% (v/v) PEG400 solutions, passivating the metal between -0.4V and -0.2V vs. SSE. Mature tobacco was found not to act as corrosion inhibitor for wrought iron at 1% (w/v) in 20% (v/v) PEG400 solutions, and more research is needed to find a derivative of this type of corrosion inhibitor to improve its corrosion inhibition efficiency at near-neutral pHs.

Keywords: Nontoxic corrosion inhibitor; L-Cysteine; Mature tobacco; PEG400; Metal composite artifacts.

M. Silva, C. Salvador, M.F. Candeias, D. Teixeira, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira

Toxicological Assessment of Novel Green Biocides for Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 265-272
The damaging of buildings and monuments by biological contamination is a cause of serious concern. Biocides based on chemical toxic compounds have been used to mitigate this problem. However, in the past decade many of the most effective biocides have been banned due to their environmental and health hazards. Therefore, proper remediation actions for microbiologically contaminated historic materials based on environmentally safe solution is of vital importance. Bacillus species are emerging as a promising alternative for built heritage treatment. They produce a great diversity of secondary metabolites with biological activity, well known to possess antagonistic activities against many fungal pathogens. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of the novel biocides produced in our laboratory by cultures of selected bacterial strains, liquid interaction assays using four biodeteriogenic fungi were achieved, revealing a nearly 100% of inhibitory capacity to fungal proliferation. To confirm their effective safe toxicological properties, in vivo tests using two different biological models were performed. The lyophilized supernatant of the Bacillus culture broth showed no lethality against brine shrimp and also no toxicological effects in Swiss mice through administration of acute dose of 5000 mg/kg by oral gavage. In fact, the bioactive compounds were no lethal at the tested dose unlike Preventol® (commercial biocide) that induced acute toxicity with 10 times minor concentration dose administrated in the same conditions. Therefore, the new bioactive compounds that suppress growth of biodeteriogenic fungi on historical artworks, presenting at the same time no toxicity against other living organisms, constituting an efficient and green safe solution for biodegradation/biodeterioration treatment of Cultural Heritage.

Keywords: Bacillus sp.; Biodegradation/biodeterioration; Bioactive compounds; Biocides; Toxicity

G. Petrella, C. Mazzuca, L. Micheli, E. Cervelli, D. De Fazio, S. Iannuccelli, S. Sotgiu, G. Palleschi, A. Palleschi

A New Sustainable and Innovative Work For Paper Artworks Cleaning Process: Gellan Hydrogel Combined With Hydrolytic Enzymes

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 273-280
Paper has been used as writing and drawing support for thousands of years. The conservation of paper artworks plays a fundamental role in the field of our cultural heritage. Moreover, restoration of paper artworks is difficult due to their inherent fragility, the presence of many components and their degradation state. Among the factors that may contribute to paper deterioration are the use of glue for the application of different materials (as a lining, mounting or as a repair intervention) on the paper artifact. During a natural ageing process, glue become yellow, acid and less compact, accelerating the degradation processes of the artwork itself. The removal of glues from paper artworks represents, therefore, an important procedure for their preservation. Here we present a sustainable alternative to the common removal systems (e.g. solvents or localized enzymatic packs on the support to be cleaned). For this goal we used a rigid Gellan hydrogel (totally removable in one step) containing hydrolytic enzyme, such as proteinase K. The enzyme works as a selective cleaning agent hydrolyzing animal glues into smaller fragments, soluble into the gel. Our system represents an effective alternative to the traditional techniques because it is easy to be prepared, eco-friendly and efficient.

Keywords: Enzymatic Gellan gel; Glue; Paper artworks; Cultural heritage

C. Riminesi, R. Olmi

Localized Microwave Heating for Controlling Biodeteriogens on Cultural Heritage Assets

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 281-294
Microwave heating to control biotic agents has already been applied in several fields, in particular in the agri-food and manufacturing industries. We applied localized microwave heating at 2.45 GHz to treat biotic agents infesting wooden artifacts and stone artifacts of interest for the cultural heritage. Compared to conventional techniques and other physical methods microwave heating is safe and pollution-free. In fact, compared to biocides and mechanical removal it has a low-interaction with the material thanks to its selective action. In addition, treatment extension, color-independence, penetration depth are enhanced with respect to treatments via thermal radiation, UV, gamma rays and laser cleaning. Thus localized microwave heating treatments can be an effective alternative for controlling the development of biodeteriogens. Using microwave heating to kill micro-organisms and to prevent microbial deterioration avoids the use of the chemical formulates with biocidal action that are usually applied (before and after cleaning ). The use of chemical products has recently been reviewed the European Union’s Biocidal Products in order to limit the risks to the substrate and the operator, to decrease environmental pollution and to prevent the possible selection of microorganisms that are resistant to the most common biocides. We present various applications of localized microwave heating to combat biotic agent growth within wooden artifacts and on the surfaces of stone artifacts. The effectiveness of the method was studied in relation to the characteristics of the microwave system (i.e. the operative conditions, frequency, power, time and temperature of exposure), the type of biological agents infesting the support/material, and the type of support/material itself.

Keywords: Microwave heating; Localized treatment; Green conservation; Biological patina; Stone; Wooden artworks

F. Tscherne, N. Wilke, B. Schachenhofer, K. Roux, G. Tavlaridis

The Thermo Lignum Ecological Insect Pest Eradication Process: The Effects on Gilded and Painted Wooden Objects

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 295-300
The present research study investigates the effects of a humidity controlled warm air treatment with the Thermo Lignum Process on gilded and painted wooden objects. The Thermo Lignum Process is an ecological and object-sensitive technique to combat insect infestations. The method only involves humidified warm air. It is founded on the established principle that most insects are reliably killed in all their life cycle stages at temperatures between 48 – 55°C depending on species. The infested objects are warmed up in a chamber to a maximum temperature of 51-58ºC. Throughout this treatment the air humidity is controlled in such a way that the EMC (equilibrium moisture content) in an object remains unchanged throughout the process. The typical chamber treatment cycle takes between 16 – 24 hours. The objects prepared for the study were examined before and after treatment by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and color measurements. Additionally investigations on potential distortion and adhesiveness to the substrates were carried out. In order to achieve the most comprehensive and meaningful result, the trial was carried out with three different groups of objects. Object group 1 consisted exclusively of samples of the binding agents most commonly used in historic finishes. Object group 2 included several newly applied finish layers, whilst Object group 3 comprised historical objects with different finishes belonging to a variety of style periods.

Keywords: Thermo lignum process; Pest eradication; Polychromatic objects; Gilded objects; Painted objects; Wooden materials; Equilibrium moisture content; Keylwerth diagram; Insect pest control;

C. Frasconi, M. Fontanelli, L. Martelloni, M. Pirchio, M. Raffaelli, A. Peruzzi

Thermal Weed Control on Horizontal and Vertical Surfaces in Archaeological Sites as an Alternative to Herbicides

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 301-310
Flaming could be an alternative weed management at archaeological sites because it controls a wide range of weed species without inducting future resistance. The aim of this study was to test the weed control efficiency of flaming on various horizontal and vertical surfaces of archaeological buildings. Working times and costs were recorded. Flaming performances were compared to the normal herbicide treatments and mowing. Results showed that repeated flaming reduced weed cover by 100%. Working times and total costs decreased by increasing the number of applications over time. This is because the repeated flaming applications deplete the weed root stocks, thus keeping the mortar between the stones or bricks and the building materials free from weeds and their seeds for a long time. The method involved zero toxicity for humans and animals, thus providing safe accessibility to the archaeological buildings and visitor pathways. The application of flaming did not cause any damage or change of colour to the treated materials, although specific, multidisciplinary studies on this subject will have to be conducted in the next future, in order to exclude any negative effect on the remains. The results of these studies showed that flaming is a viable alternative for controlling weeds growing on archaeological surfaces.

Keywords: Archaeological remains; Flaming; Historical buildings; Non-chemical; Monuments; Weed control.

L. Luvidi, A.M. Mecchi, M. Ferretti, G. Sidoti

Treatments with Self-Cleaning Products for the Maintenance and Conservation of Stone Surfaces

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 311-322
Cleaning stone surfaces is a crucial issue as irreversible and potentially harmful for the stone itself. Inadequate interventions might cause damage also visible over the time. Moreover they often have to be repeated, especially in urban areas, where the surfaces are more subjected to dusts deposition and pollution alterations. In order to reduce the need for cleaning, TiO2-based treatments have been proposed for their self-cleaning, depollution and antibacterial properties. These products are currently used to coat the outdoor surfaces of buildings but little experience has so far been made in the field of Cultural Heritage. This paper concerns the experiments carried out to evaluate efficiency, durability and harmfulness of three different TiO2-based products, either in form of nanoparticles or mixed with hydrophobic polymers, used to treat three carbonatic stones. A polydimethylsiloxane as reference polymer was used. Specimens of these stones were exposed to an urban polluted outdoor environment for eight months. The specimens were investigated by colorimetric measurements, surface observations and X-ray microanalyses by electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, Rhodamine tests, ion chromatography measurements and elemental analyses by X-ray fluorescence. The results showed that the photocatalytic products have a mild self-cleaning effect depending on the stone and tend to be easily washed away by the rain.

Keywords: Photocatalytic product; TiO2-based product; Self-cleaning effect; Stone treatment; Maintenance

A. Macchia, S.A. Ruffolo, L. Rivaroli, M.F. La Russa

The Treatment of Iron-stained Marble: Toward a “Green” Solution

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 323-332
In the field of stone restoration, an unresolved issue is represented by the removal of iron stains from stone substrates. This study deals with a comparative study of the efficacy of several formulations in removing iron-stains from marble. These formulations are mostly based on chelating agents (ammonium thioglycolate, ammonium citrate, L-cysteine and DL methionine), which can form stable complexes with iron. Two sets of experiments have been carried out. Powdered calcium carbonate has been mixed with ferric hydroxide, then the mixture has been put in contact with the formulations, then the amount of removed iron has been evaluated. Another experimentation has been carried out on marble specimens artificially stained with rust. Removing tests have been performed, and their efficiency has been evaluated by measuring the colorimetric variations of the surfaces and the variation of the porous structure. The use of cysteine together with sodium dithionite solution showed the best results; moreover this formulation is the most eco-friendly solution, both for the restores and for the environment.

Keywords: Iron stains revmoval; Stained marble; Chelating agents; Ammonium thioglycolate; Ammonium citrate; L-cysteine; DL methionine

M. Sgobbi, L. Falchi, F.C. Izzo, M. Zuena, E. Zendri

Evaluation of Eco-Compatible Methodologies to Clean Stone Surfaces Polluted by Oil Spill

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 333-348
This research concerns the structuring of a suitable method for the removal of oil (Fuel Oil 120 cSt) from traditional bricks and Istrian Stone, materials commonly found amongst embankments and buildings of North Adriatic coastal cities. A cleaning protocol, based upon non-toxic products, was developed in consideration of its compatibility with historical, architectural surfaces. The contamination effects of oil on Istrian stone and fired clay bricks was studied, followed by a range of cleaning treatments using bulk sorbents, surfactant solutions and N,N-dimethyl-octanamide. The application was executed using the products singularly, combined or in succession. The succession of sorbent, solvent and surfactant solution demonstrated good capability of removal and was then applied on macrosamples of brick masonry showing good results.

Keywords: Oil spill; Historic materials; Bio-degradable; Compatible; Environment safeguard

M. Munteanu, I. Sandu, V. Vasilache, I.C.A. Sandu

Disadvantages of Using Some Polymers in Restoration of Old Icons on Wooden Panels

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 349-356
The present paper presents some disadvantages of using acrylic polymers in the restoration of old icons on wooden panels. Two acrylic polymers were taken into study: Paraloid B72 and Paraloid B67. These two acrylic polymers were chosen for several reasons, being well known and used by the majority of the restorers’ community, due to their dissolution properties and availability. The two acrylic polymers were used to consolidate samples of old wood (2x2x1cm). The samples were taken from heavily degraded wooden panels which would not undergo restoration. The three samples of lime-tree and three samples of oak-tree were then consolidated each with three different polymeric solutions. In order to determine the way that this type of consolidation can influence the wood and the disadvantages of using these acrylic polymers, the following analytical techniques were used: optical microscopy (OM), CIEL*a*b* colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: Acrylic polymers; Consolidation; Disadvantages; Old icons; Wooden panels

R. Karadag, E. Torgan

Advantages and Importance of Natural Dyes in the Restoration of Textile Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 357-366
Identification of an art object material of cultural heritage had received significant attention, because of its importance for the development of appropriate restoration and conservation strategies. In this paper, optical microscopy, CIE L*a*b* spectrophotometer/colorimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array-detection (HPLC-DAD) are used to investigate many historical textiles samples in some museums.

Keywords: Natural dyes; Restoration; Cultural heritage; HPLC-DAD; SEM-EDX; Colour measurements

Publication date 30.04.2016     


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Issue Cover

Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2016

Research articles

S. Borrego, S. Gómez de Saravia, O. Valdés, I. Vivar, P. Battistoni, P. Guiamet

Biocidal Activity of Two Essential Oils on Fungi That Cause Degradation of Paper Documents

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 369-380
The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocidal activity of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L. M. Perry (nail) and Allium sativum L. (garlic) against different fungal species producing paper degradation and deterioration. Essential oils (EOs) were obtained from harvested plants in their natural habitat in Cuba, and were tested against the species Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. which were isolated from archival indoor environments and documents with patrimonial value The biocidal activity was studied at different concentrations (70, 50, 25, 12.5 and 7.5%) using the agar diffusion method. The effect of extracts on paper alterations was studied through different techniques including determination of pH and number of copper and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The determination of inhibition zones by the agar diffusion method of the tested EOs showed a moderate and/or positive effect. The study of the antifungal activity on paper (“in vivo”) shows that both clove and garlic oils were potent biocides. Although the paper structure was not affected by EOs pure, some molecular damages were observed at lower concentrations across determinations of the pH and copper number.

Keywords: Biodegradation; Documents; Essential oils; Fungi; Paper; SEM.

G. Abdel-Maksoud, A. El-Sayed

Microscopic Investigation for Condition Assessment of Archaeological Bones from Different Sites in Egyp

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 381-394
Bones are found in different archaeological sites in Egypt. The bones samples examined in this study were collected from eight archaeological sites and two museum store houses. The samples were collected from different environments (dry and moist). Collected samples suffer from adverse deterioration, which was mainly due to burial environments. Many aspects of deterioration are found on the surface of the bones such as darkness, stains which may be derived from different sources, pitting etc. This study focuses on the changes that occur on the surface of bones in burial environments and in museum storehouses. Digital, optical, polarized and scanning electron microscopes were used to evaluate studied samples. (The results revealed that most environmental conditions in most locations let to many aspects of deterioration) such as pitting, erosion, change of color and etc. Humid environmental are more aggressive on the studied bone samples than dry conditions.

Keywords: Bones; Archaeological sites; Deterioration; Microscopy.

M. Fernandes, S. Babo, M.F. Macedo

Oil Painting Collection: Risk Assessment, Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 395-414
“Casa dos Patudos”, a historic house museum, has a large collection of oil paintings on permanent display. Many of the problems affecting this collection do not have simple answers. Ideal solutions may be too expensive or unattainable. Consequently, an approach to establishing priorities and planning improvements is imperative. The Cultural Property Risk Model was applied to this oil painting collection. The magnitude of the specific risks for this collection were calculated in order to provide a well informed decision making, taking into account the type of mitigation strategies possible to implement in a historic house. The top five hazards affecting this collection were: the high relative humidity values and fluctuations, incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, damages caused by wood borers and excessive light exposure. Some of the mitigations actions proposed involve the increase of doors and windows insulation, providing staff training on paintings collection care and preventive conservation, implementation of an integrated pest management program. Although this work was applied to a specific oil painting collection, many other historic houses have oil painting collections under similar risks as the ones reported in this work.

Keywords: Preventive Conservation; Risk Assessment; Oil Painting; Historic House.

S. Ricci, F. Antonelli, B. Davidde petriaggi, D. Poggi, C. Sacco Perasso

Observations of Two Mosaic Fragments from The Underwater City of Baiae (Naples, Italy): Archaeological, Geological and Biological Investigations

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 415-430
Bioerosion of submerged Roman calcareous mosaic floors from the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae (Naples, Italy) was examined. Epilithic colonization and endolithic biodegradation of the tesserae were studied on two recovered mosaic fragments using different analyses. 32 taxa were identified. Polished thin sections were achieved to study mortars and lithotype. SEM observations permitted the identification of micro and macroborers by using the embedding-casting technique. The study showed that the damage of the limestone tesserae was higher on the peripheral parts of the fragments. The results characterized the bioerosion of the submerged floors and offered a useful contribution in defining future conservation strategies.

Keywords: Baiae-Naples; Mosaics; Limestone tesserae; Bioerosion

D. Mukherjee, S. Bhattacharyya, P. Chaudhuri

Fumigation of Eucalyptus Oil for Controlling Strong Room Fungi at Jorasanko Museum (Tagore’s Residence), India: A Study for Sustainable Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 431-442
Presently thymol is used as fungal repellent in several museums worldwide. Thymol is a reported decolorizing (foxing) agent and also harmful for human health (toxicity category-III). In the present study it has been observed that thymol is being used to conserve about three thousand rare documents belonging to Nobel Laureate poet Ranindranath Tagore and his ancestrals in Jorasanko Museum, India. The objective of our study was to promote a suitable nontoxic alternative for long term conservation of museum materials. Eucalyptus oil was selected for this purpose. Percentage Mycelial Inhibition (PMI) had been studied using 24 ppm, 48 ppm, 72 ppm and 96 ppm of eucalyptus oil on ten fungi isolated from the strong room of the museum. Both thymol and eucalyptus oil had been fumigated and fungal counts were observed after two days. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 48 ppm eucalyptus oil and 4 days fumigation frequency yield optimum fungal control. It was sensitive for individual strains like Aspergillus tamari (32% removal) and Trichoderma sp (64% removal) which was not controlled by thymol fumigation. This study revealed that eucalyptus oil has better potentiality and can be used for long-term conservation of museum objects in future.

Keywords: Eucalyptus oil; Museum conservation; Museum fungi; Foxing.

N.A. Abd El-Tawab Bader, A.M. Ashry

The Cleaning of The Isis Temple`s Mural Paintings in Upper Egypt using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Non-ionic Detergent

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 443-458
The Greek-Roman Isis temple is located on the west bank of Luxor; Upper Egypt was made of sandstone and decorated with different kinds of wall paintings. It suffers from many causes of deterioration and degradation mainly ground water, salt weathering, and different types of dirt accumulations on the relives and paint surface such as soot, grease, wax, biodeteriorated colored patches, bat patches, waste of birds and even house fly specks. All these lead to the gradual disappearance of paintings. In the present article we report a study on some Nanoparticles Materials synthesized by sol-gel process to set up a cleaning system to remove a wide range of different types of organic and inorganic materials from the surface of the wall paintings of the Isis temple. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, different mural painting samples were collected from the temple for analytical characterization. The materials were characterized by optical microscopy, polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. According to the results, a number of wall painting samples were selected with paint layers that were composed of different pigments and covered with different patches. The experimental tests indicated the efficacy of mixture of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) + Vulpex K5P3O10 (potassium methyl cyclohexyl) (1:1) in the removing of wax, stains and blood patches. The results were supported by detailed photographic documentation, Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra and color change parameters.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; Isis Temple; Mural Painting; Cleaning; Nonionic Detergent Cleaning; Color Stability

M. Ghoniem

Characterization and Scientific Conservation of a Group of Archaeological Bronze Egyptian Statues

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 459-467
Several archaeological bronze statuettes adhered randomly to a bigger statue of goddess Sekhmet as a big mass, which was excavated from Sais and most likely dates to C.600 BC, and was investigated and conserved. They were in a poor condition, retained intact their thick corrosion crust incorporated with residual burial soil. Both the surface corrosion products and the metal substrates were studied to understand the objects corrosion process and to obtain information about their chemical composition before the conservation procedures. Optical Microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDX) were used for disclosing corrosion features, the nature and composition of the patina, and compositional analysis of the study group. The results indicated that the objects have been buried in wet sandy saline soil or were exposed in storage to an environment rich in many aggressive ions such as chloride, sulfur and oxygen. These corrosive conditions reflected on the patina and the composition of the corrosion layers that mostly composed of chlorides, sulfates and oxides. The objects were made by solid casting technique except the statue of Sekhmet that was made using the hollow casting technique. All the objects were made of Lead-bronze alloy, with a lead content ranging from 5.43% to 19.12%. Different approaches of cleaning were adopted according to the condition of the objects, in order to remove the corrosion and soil disfiguring deposits and to reveal the original surface details. The loose, powdery and thick encrustations were removed by subsequent manual cleaning down to the level of the original surface. The hard corrosion crust on the other objects was stripped chemically with a less aggressive alkaline solution. This procedure was followed by successive baths in distilled water and drying cycles, followed by a succession of acetone baths. For stabilization, all the treated objects were placed in 5% w/v benzotriazole in ethanol solution to prevent future outbreaks of corrosion. Finally, the objects were coated with a protective coating of Paralloid B-44 acrylic co-polymer dissolved in toluene and a waxy coating of microcrystalline wax (Cosmoloid H80) as a superficial topcoat barrier against water or water vapor and to offer a more robust protective system.

Keywords: Bronze statues; XRD; EDS; corrosion products; leaded bronze; conservation

M. El Khalili

Damage Assessment of the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman, Jordan: an Analytical and Diagnostic Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 477-492
This research aims to assess the deterioration conditions and their causes that affected the Roman Nymphaeum in Amman. The monument was built over a cave with running spring water. Thus, the damp condition started from the beginning and generated different problems such as the weakness of the foundation, raising damp and the subsequent salt crystallization, erosion and micro-organism growth. The other major problem of the monument is its current location within the modern urban environment of today’s city of Amman with high concentration of air pollution, vibration, and necessary urban infrastructural changes such as the installing of a sewage system that goes under the structure and the main streets around the building. Several deterioration features can be identified in the Nymphaeum including stone weathering, rising damp, efflorescence, sub-florescence, erosion, staining, crumbling, chipping, cracking, detachment, and flaking. To determine the deterioration factors in the monument, scientific techniques of analysis and examination were used such as XRD and SEM attached with EDX and it was concluded that this monument is suffering from severe deterioration and damage. As a result this study can provide the basis for establishing a comprehensive conservation plan for saving the monument within a context of a larger urban plan to give it a better role to be defined for the future, especially for tourism purposes.

Keywords: Roman Nymphaeum; Architectural damage; Physical deterioration; Chemical degradation; Salt damage; Biological growth; Air pollution; XRD; SEM, EDX.

A. Sallam, Y. Zhao, M. Hassan, M. Toprak, M. Muhammed, A. Uheida

Studies on the Deterioration of Coptic Mural Paintings in the Monastery of Martyrs and the Luxor Temple

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 493-500
In this study the surfaces and cross sections of deteriorated Coptic mural paintings were investigated using Computer Tomography (CT) scan images and video, and points (voids) on the surface were analyzed. To our knowledge, it is the first report on the application of CT scan for the investigation of deteriorated Coptic mural painting surfaces in Upper Egypt. The samples tested were collected from two sites: the Monastery of Martyrs (Deir alShuhada-Esna) and the Luxor temple. The selection of these monasteries was due to their historical importance, which is directly related to Egyptian Coptic heritage. The deteriorated surfaces of the selected mural paintings were characterized using new avenues of computed X-ray tomography (CT scan) in order to gather sufficient information about their composition and structure. The obtained results show that CT scan images provided us with detailed information about the sample porosity and structure. In the case of the Martyrs monastery, it was found that the mural paintings consist of one layer which contains clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite) in the form of coarse plaster. On the other hand, the Martyrs Monastery showed higher porosity than the Roman Fresco in the Luxor Temple.

Keywords: CT-scan; Deterioration; Conservation; Coptic mural painting.

O.E. Hapciuc, G. Romanescu, I. Minea, M. Iosub, A. Enea, I. Sandu

Flood Susceptibility Analysis of The Cultural Heritage in The Sucevita Catchment (Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 501-510
The intensification of natural hazards and the expansion of human impact are likely to threaten the cultural heritage of a region. The multidisciplinary approach identifies the flood susceptible areas, it relates them to the cultural heritage sites and it also provides the flood risks mitigation measures for these monuments. The Sucevita catchment is unique considering certain important landmarks of the national heritage and the UNESCO World heritage (monasteries). The flood risk maps are considered important tools to determine the vulnerability of the heritage monuments in developing the protection and the conservation strategies. The GIS technique and the comparative assessment of the risk factors allowed the identification of the heritage monuments that belong to the highest flood susceptibility area by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This area corresponds to the localities that are situated near the main course of the Sucevita river. In order to preserve the cultural heritage, it is necessary to implement some strategies and activities of flood risk management through structural and non-structural measures.

Keywords: Flood measures; GIS analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Preventive conservation; UNESCO.

O. Abdel-Kareem, A. Al-Zahrani, A. Khedr, M.A. Harith

Evaluating the Use of Laser in Analysis and Cleaning of the Islamic Marine Archaeological Coins Excavated from The Red Sea

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 511-522
This study aims to evaluate the use of laser in cleaning and LIBS analysis of the Islamic Marine Archaeological coins excavated from under the Red Sea water. Laser tests using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm were performed on 2 different types of corroded coins. For evaluating the usefulness of the suggested setup protocol of laser used in this study, the coins taken into study were investigated, before and after the laser cleaning, with Scanning Electron Microscope with attached energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX). The results show that the number of shots of LIBS is a very important task while acquiring LIBS spectra. The first shot is very useful for investigating the corrosion layer. The fourth and the fifth shot are useful for investigating the core of the coins with a medium layer of corrosion. The second shot is the best for the coins covered with very thin layers of tarnish. This study confirms that the fifth shot (20 pulses) is the best condition to clean the coin with a medium layer of corrosion, while the second shot (2 pulses) is the best condition to clean the coin with a very thin layer of corrosion.

Keywords: Marine archaeological coins; Laser cleaning; Nd:YAG laser; LIBS; SEM-EDX

R. Nongmaithem, M.S. Lodhi, P.K. Samal, P.P. Dhyani, S. Sharma

Faunal Diversity and Threats of The Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve: A Study from Assam, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 523-532
The paper in an attempt to develop an inventory of faunal diversity of Dibru-Saikhwa Biosphere Reserve (DSBR) of Assam which is one of the important Biosphere Reserves of the Eastern Indian Himalaya and to highlight the threats that the BR is facing over the years so as to decisively support the need for conservation efforts. After compilation and analysis from various data sources the BR depicts the presence of 503 species of birds, 37 species of mammals, 42 species of reptiles, 17 species of amphibian, 104 species of fishes, 105 species of butterfly and 91 globally threatened faunal species, while the Soil microbial diversity in the BR is contributed by 26 soil micro-fungal forms. The rich biodiversity of the BR is under stress due to natural and human pressures. As per the recent studies, the BR has lost an area of 77.14km2 due to revirine stress and 3.71km2 has been encroached as per the State Forest Report.

Keywords: Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere; Eastern Himalaya; Biodiversity; Protected Area.

J. Sethy, N.S. Chuahan

Status and Distribution of Malayan Sun Bear in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 533-552
The Malayan sun bear Helarctos malayanus, is categorized globally as a Critically Endangered species on the IUCN Red List. However, recent studies have indicated that sun bear have disappeared from large areas, probably as a result of habitat loss, a low prey base and poaching, indicating this species may not be as common in India as previously believed. Our findings indicate that the species has declined dramatically, with confirmation of presence at only some sites in provinces, despite extensive surveys. Current populations are small and fragmented, and occur mainly in tiger reserve. In Namdapha Tiger Reserve, 379 different bear signs were identified along 43 transects. The number of claw marks was found to be highest as compared to number of scats, nests, diggings, dens and footprints. All these bear signs were observed in summer, monsoon and winter months in different forest types in Namdapha Tiger Reserve. The mean signs were highest during the winter months (41.5±5.80), followed by monsoon months (31.0±6.25) and summer months (22.25±3.83) during the study periods. There was a distinct relationship between season, elevation and density of bear signs per unit area (R2 Linear = 0.81488). The density of bear signs showed an increasing trend with the increasing elevation in the tiger reserve. But from 1500m and above, the density of bear signs decreased drastically. In India, there is no information on the population status, distribution and ecology of sun bear. Our findings are the first reliable estimates of the current distribution and status of the Malayan sun bear in India, and provide valuable information that will help guide the conservation efforts.

Keywords: Status; Distribution; Sun bear; Namdapha TR; Arunachal Pradesh

M.Z. Haque, M.I.H. Reza, M.M. Alam, Z.U. Ahmed, M.W. Islam

Discovery of a Potential Site for Community-Based Sustainable Ecotourism in the Sundarbans Reserve Forests, Bangladesh

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 553-566
Conservation of biological diversity is a pressing need and protected areas are the cornerstones for conserving remaining flora and fauna. However, forest dependent livelihood in countries like Bangladesh is making this task very critical. In the case of the poor and forest-dependent livelihood in the Sundarbans area of Bangladesh, an eco-friendly ecotourism may provide an alternative livelihood, which may reduce the overexploitation from the valuable Sundarbans forest ecosystems. Furthermore, this initiative may also serve to aware people on the value of these unique ecosystems. Therefore, this study discusses the scope, benefits and challenges for developing sustainable ecotourism within the protected area. It focuses on the development of a potential site having ecological and archaeological values for sustainable ecotourism inside the Sundarbans Reserve Forest. Developing sustainable tourism spots inside the wildlife hub has a high demand among tourists and it is also necessary for the socio-economic development of the local community, moreover, the approach of community-based ecotourism (CBEM) is a suitable strategy for the conservation of protected areas.

Keywords: Community Based Ecotourism (CBEM); Biodiversity conservation; Sustainability; Site development; Protected area

K.L. Adopo, M.Y. N'guessan, A.V. Sandu, G. Romanescu, I.G. Sandu

The Spatial Distribution and Characterization of Sediments and the Bottom Morphology of the Hydroelectric Lake in Ayamé 2 (Ivory Coast)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 567-578
A sedimentological study was carried out at the lake of Ayamé, with the purpose of determining, by using granulometric and mineralogical characteristics, the origin, the transport process and the space distribution of sediments. In the lake of Ayamé one distinguishes in the downstream sector a prevalence of mud and fine sands. In the upstream sector sands are mainly middle to coarse in size. The muds are localized in the vicinities of the banks, while sands are found in the principal channel of the lake. The minerals found in the sediments are heavy minerals (amphibole, tourmaline, diopside and epidote) and light minerals (quartz and feldspaths). The morphoscopy of the quartzes revealed the prevalence of rounded and bright particles, representing a lake transport over a relatively long distance.

Keywords: Dam; Lake; Grain size; Mineralogy; Morphology; Ayamé, Cote d’Ivoire

K. Shaikh, G.S. Gachal, S.Q. Memon, M.Y. Shaikh

Assessment of Environmental Issues of Amphibian Fauna in Taluka Thano Bula Khan (District Jamshoro) Sindh-Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 579-588
The present study was conducted in a subdivision of District Jamshoro “Taluka Thano Bula Khan” to analyze the water quality of amphibian’s ponds. The field surveys were carried out from 2011-2013 at six ponds, where the permanent habitation of amphibians was confirmed The water quality of each pond was analyzed using the standard methodology and scientific instrumentation. During this three years study, it was determined that the pH and carbon dioxide (mg L-1) were the only parameters, whose values (8.0±0.6 and 18.2±3.32 respectively) were normal in whole study area, while the values of electric conductivity (μS cm-1) 2821.8±1202.2, total dissolved solids (mg L-1) 1861.8±759.0, total hardness (mg L-1) 367.7±56.0, total alkalinity (mg L-1) 351.7±54.9, chloride (mg L-1) 377.6±135.4, sulphate (mg L-1) 463.8±125.5, phosphate (mg L-1) 439.2±124.9 and potassium (mg L-1) 67.5±10.7 were above the normal limit. It was also determined that the concentration of nitrite (mg L-1) 2.2±1.6 and nitrate (mg L-1) 6.1±4.3) varied from low to high values. Present research recorded the high rate of pollution in the entire environment of amphibians, where no conservation action is ever implemented for the conservation of these delicate animals; even this present study is unique, due to the fact that it highlights the ruined status of amphibian ambient for the first time in Taluka Thano Bula Khan.

Keywords: Amphibian environment; Water quality issues; Physico-chemical Parameters; Taluka Thano Bula Khan; District Jamshoro; Sindh; Pakistan

Publication date: 15.06.2016


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Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2016

Research articles

I.C.A. Sandu, P. Spiridon, I. Sandu

Current Studies and Approaches in the Field of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science. Harmonizing the Terminology in an Interdisciplinary Context

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 591-606
During the last years, both the problem of harmonizing the specific terminology of Conservation Science and the modern approach related to scientific investigation, preservation, restoration, display, respectively treasuring of the cultural heritage assets were frequently addressed during the important events and meetings in the field. With this in mind, this paper addresses some aspects concerning the nomenclature in the field, taken from interdisciplinary systems. Furthermore, it present a series of aspects developed by our research team, such as: heritage elements and functions, routes of the cultural assets with their historical context, the role of scientific investigation in valorisation of old artefacts, and current nomenclature of the specific professions in the field of Conservation Science.

Keywords: Cultural property; Specific terms; Nemenclature; Interdisciplinarty; Heritage elements and functions; routes of the cultural assets; historical context.

P.V. Alfieri, R. García, V. Rosato, M.V. Correa

Biodeterioration and Biodegradation of Wooden Heritage: Role of Fungal Succession

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 607-614
Wood from heritage is usually attacked by wood-decay fungi generating mainly loss of dimensional and structural stability. The study of wood biodegradation process and its mechanism allow the obtaining of tools for wood conservation. In this paper, wood biodeterioration and biodegradation processes were studied in order to acquire a direct and visual indicator of the beginning of wood degradation. This indicator will allow the consolidation and protection of wood before it will be structurally compromised. Wood degradation conditions found in turntable were reproduced in laboratory by accelerated processes: environment degradation was developed by fluctuation cycles of humidity and temperature. Biological degradation was performed using wood decay fungus isolated from wooden heritage samples. The wood samples were inoculated with an equal amount of mycelia until abortive basidiomata emerged. The result analysis indicated that even though each species occupies particular niches, first settlers (environmental fungi) would generate a material more bioreceptive for wood decay fungi being replaced each other as dynamic communities. Consequently, environmental fungi allow the wood decay fungi to colonise and exploit better their ecological niche (succession). It was concluded that the appearance of first settlers is therefore a reliable visual indicator of the need of wood consolidation in order to preventing irreversibly wooden heritage loss.

Keywords: Wooden artefact; Conservation state; Destruction and alteration; Wood decay fungi; Wood decay indicator; Wood preservation

S.V. Kumar, M. Singh, S.A. Waghmare, N.E. Mahajan, P.D. Sabale

Eradication of Vegetal Growth and Systematic Scientific Conservation Approach of Ballaleshwar Temple, Trimbakeshwar (India)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 615-626
This research emphasizes the impact of vegetation on historical monument of Ballaleshwar Temple, Trimbakeshwar, India and its systematic eradication and restoration strategies followed for the site. The lime mortar samples extracted deep within the rock were subjected to mineralogical and instrumental investigation using XRF, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The aggregates in the mortars were subjected to extensive petrological analysis to prepare matching repair mix for restoration. It appears that aggregates obtained through Basaltic rock disintegration were mixed in the mortar preparation for the temple. Major structural conservation measures were initiated in the form of stone elements removal and its subsequent restoration with lime mortar mix.

Keywords: Lime mortar; vegetation; conservation; replication; lime/silica; peepal tree.

A.S. Leal, A. Dionísio, M.A. Sequeira Braga, O. Mateus

The Long Term Preservation of Late Jurassic Sandstone Dinossaur Footprints in a Museum Environment

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 627-646
This study focuses on the assessment of the degradation processes occurring in three sandstone infills of fossilized Late Jurassic ornithopod tridactyl footprints, found in 2001 in a coastline cliff in Porto das Barcas (Lourinhã, Portugal) and exhibited in a museum display since 2004. These dinosaur footprints present nowadays severe decay phenomena compromising their physical integrity and are leading gradually to their loss of value. The deterioration patterns were recorded, a map of their distribution was prepared and several samples were collected both in the dinosaur footprints and in the coastline cliff. Different analytical procedures were applied such as XRD, FTIR, FESEM and Ion Chromatography. A microclimatic survey was also performed and air temperature and relative humidity was measured during eight months both indoor and also outdoor. The decay patterns observed are a combination intrinsic and extrinsic factors the stone material, namely swelling of clay minerals in the rock matrix (smectite and chlorite-smectite mixed-layer), presence of salts (mainly chlorides), application of past conservation treatments (poly(vinyl) acetate and epoxy resins) and with the museum’s indoor thermohygrometric conditions (mainly non-stable hygrometric conditions). This scientific knowledge is therefore essential to the sustainable preservation of this paleontological heritage.

Keywords: Dinosaur footprints; Sandstone; Museum; Decay; Clay minerals; Salts; Past treatments; Environmental microclimate.

S.A.M. Hamed, M.F. Mohamed

Characterization of Archaeological Wood Stained with Bat Excretions using Various Analytical Techniques

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 647-658
Presently thymol is used as fungal repellent in several museums worldwide. Thymol is a reported decolorizing (foxing) agent and also harmful for human health (toxicity category-III). In the present study it has been observed that thymol is being used to conserve about three thousand rare documents belonging to Nobel Laureate poet Ranindranath Tagore and his ancestrals in Jorasanko Museum, India. The objective of our study was to promote a suitable nontoxic alternative for long term conservation of museum materials. Eucalyptus oil was selected for this purpose. Percentage Mycelial Inhibition (PMI) had been studied using 24 ppm, 48 ppm, 72 ppm and 96 ppm of eucalyptus oil on ten fungi isolated from the strong room of the museum. Both thymol and eucalyptus oil had been fumigated and fungal counts were observed after two days. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 48 ppm eucalyptus oil and 4 days fumigation frequency yield optimum fungal control. It was sensitive for individual strains like Aspergillus tamari (32% removal) and Trichoderma sp (64% removal) which was not controlled by thymol fumigation. This study revealed that eucalyptus oil has better potentiality and can be used for long-term conservation of museum objects in future.

Keywords: Eucalyptus oil; Museum conservation; Museum fungi; Foxing.

R. Larsen, N. Coluzzi, A. Cosentino

Free XRF Spectroscopy Database of Pigments Checker

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 659-668
Pigments Checker is a collection of swatches of historical pigments that offers art professionals, conservation scientists, conservators and fine art photographers, a tool to evaluate and test their imaging and spectroscopic methodologies for pigment identification. “Pigments Checker Free Spectra Database” is an ongoing project that wants to thoroughly characterize each pigment in the collection with a series of spectroscopic and imaging techniques and to make the data open access. This paper presents the free and downloadable database of XRF spectra, adding to the reflectance spectral database already published. The XRF analysis is in agreement with the information provided by the pigments’ manufacturers since all of the pigments have XRF spectra consistent with the expected elemental content reported in literature. In addition to elemental characterization by XRF, future analysis with Raman, FT-IR and XRD will be pursued in order to achieve a broader characterization of the pigments.

Keywords: X-Ray Fluorescent Spectroscopy; Art; Paint Analysis; Pigments Checker

M. El-Gohary, A. Metawa

Cleaning of Architectural Bricks using RF Plasma. I. Metallic Stains

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 669-682
RF Plasma is a glow discharge typically generated through using oxygen and hydrogen as the input working gas. In the current study the radio frequency (RF) hydrogen plasma (H2) is used for removing some metallic stains (iron and copper) affected the historical brick surfaces in Prince Yousef Kamal place. Untreated and treated surfaces were evaluated by OLS, EDX-SEM & FTIR. Investigation results show that both iron and copper aged samples had been cleaned, where the stains thicknesses' were removed perfectly through. Analytical results of the accumulated particles demonstrate that they are decreased after cleaning process. In addition, morphological investigations proved the clearness of positive effects in the reducing of the samples surfaces' darkening and accumulations thickness' in all cleaned samples.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge; Capacitive coupled plasma; Artificial ageing; SEM-EDX, FTIR

G. Romanescu

Tourist Exploitation of Archaeological Sites in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Area (Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 683-690
Romanian summer tourism has developed extraordinarily on the Black Sea coast and in the Danube Delta. The administration of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve took measures for the protection of the natural environment and for the local development of tourism (mostly of ecologic tourism). The cultural potential of Dobrudja (represented by world-famous archaeological sites placed on the limes of the Razim-Sinoe lagoon complex and of the Danube) has enabled the emergence of a new, specialized type of tourism in the Danube Delta: the cultural (archaeological) tourism. The interface between the Dobrudjan mainland and the Danube Delta comprises the largest archaeological treasure in Romania and even in Europe (in relation to the number of superficial sites). The advantage of developing such specialized tourism is also provided by the possibility of elaborating terrestrial or aquatic itineraries. Tourism can also be advantaged by the location of the legendary Greek Island of Peuce (the “Pine Island” mentioned by Herodotus) in the eastern sector of the Dunavăț Peninsula. The proposition made here is to develop cultural tourism based on the existence of historical vestiges within the area of the first Romanian region included in urban civilization.

Keywords: Natural environment; Sustainable exploitation; Littoral; Archaeological sites; Tourism

A.A. Afefe, E.-B.E. Hatab, M.S. Abbas, E.S.I. Gaber

Assessment of Threats to Vegetation Cover in Wadi El Rayan Protected Area, Western Desert, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 691-708
Wadi El Rayan is located in the African Sahara ecoregion of the Palearctic eco-zone, the world's largest hot desert. The total area of Wadi El Rayan is 1759km². The objective of the present study is to enrich the knowledge on the vegetation cover along the shores of Wadi El Rayan lakes and to identify the different threats, underlying causes and recommended solutions for the conservation of natural vegetation cover in Wadi El Rayan Protected Area (WRPA). Based on field surveys, we found that current pressures of human activities on natural vegetation include overgrazing, irresponsible tourism, land encroachment, water pollution, water over-use, fire, and habitat change and destruction. The reduction of water levels due to decreased water incoming is considered the main threat facing ecosystems and biodiversity in the lakes area. We found that the perimeter of the lower lake has decreased from 48.6km² in 2007 to 34.09km² in 2013 (a loss of 29.8 % of the total lake area), due to lake decreased water level. The most underlying causes of vegetation loss in the study area were found to be the lack of awareness, weak law enforcement, lack of suitable strategies, weak financial support and lack of stakeholders’ cooperation. Survey results show that vegetation cover in the area of the connecting channel and northeastern of the lower lake represents the highest impacted area by human pressures compared to other locations. Moreover, the role of WRPA is important in achieving good cooperation between governmental authorities, local community, and owners of different economic activities and in finding new ways to improve potential future cooperation with other stakeholders. We also provide some suggested activities for conserving vegetation cover in WRPA.

Keywords: Vegetation; Protected area; Wadi El Rayan; Threats; Conservation

K. Devi, J. Brahma, K. Shrivastava

Documentation of Four Hitherto Unreported Wild Edible Macro Fungi From Chirang District of Assam, North-East India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 709-718
Wild edible fungi are fleshy, edible fruit bodies of macro fungi which are literally consumed by humans for their nutritional and medicinal values since time immemorial. The present study aims to document ecological relationship and utilization pattern of wild edible fungi as an important source of food consumed by the Bodo tribes of Chirang district of Assam, North-east India. Owing to their rich biodiversity, a variety of wild edible macro fungi have been collected from forest fringe areas of Chirang reserve forest during rainy period. A total of 14 macro fungal species representing 12 genera from 10 families belonging to the order Agaricales (64.3%), Polyporales (21.4%), Auriculariales and Phallales (7.2%) were collected. The ecological relationship shows that maximum species were saprophytic in nature (10 no’s) along with some parasitic and symbiotic species. Overall four edible and medicinal species were recorded for the first time from Chirang district of Assam. Among them Termitomyces sp. (83.3%) showed maximum frequency whereas Dictyophora sp. and Ganoderma applanatum showed minimum frequency (16.6%). Maximum density was recorded for Macrolepiota procera (7.6) and minimum density was recorded for Ganoderma applanatum (0.16.).

Keywords: Wild edible fungi; ethnic tribes; biodiversity; Chirang district; Assam.

M. Naeem Awan, A.A. Karamanlidis, M. Siddique Awan, M. Ali Nawaz, M. Kabir

Preliminary Survey on Asiatic Black Bear In Kashmir Himalaya, Pakistan: Implications For Preservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 719-724
Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus thibetanus) are considered vulnerable throughout their range. In 2012 we conducted field surveys and questionnaires in the autonomous state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan to document the presence of bears and to evaluate human – bear conflicts. We recorded bears mainly in the northern and eastern part of the study area and documented wide-scale human – bear conflicts, which often resulted in the killing and a generally negative public perception of bears. We recommend additional studies to more accurately evaluate black bear status, biology and human-bear conflicts and the establishment of a protected area for bears in the region. On a national level, an Asiatic Black Bear Action Plan that will guide and coordinate research, management and conservation efforts is necessary to safeguard the future of the species in the country.

Keywords: Ursus thibetanus thibetanus; Crop damages; Endangered species; Himalayas; Livestock depredation; Management;

H.J. Al-Daraji, S.A. Al-Shemmary

Effect of Breed of Falcon on Semen Quality Traits

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 725-734
This study was conducted to determine the effect of falcon breed on semen quality traits. A total of 12 sexually matured males from three breeds of falcon (4 falcon males from each breed), which were Gyr, Saker and Peregrine, were used in this study. Birds were reared at typical falcon houses which were provided with all standard requirements for falconry. During the reproductive season (January – April) all males were trained on semen collection procedure by using special protocol to handle these birds. Semen samples were collected from all males on a fortnightly basis. Semen traits involved in this study were ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility, individual motility and percentage of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities. Result revealed that there are significant differences between three breeds of falcons in regards to the semen quality characteristics involved in this experiment. Peregrine falcon recorded the highest values (P≤ 0.05) with respect to ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, mass motility and individual motility followed by the results of Saker falcon, while Gyr falcon recorded the lowest values as concerning these traits. Results also indicated that Peregrine falcon surpasses (P≤ 0.05) Saker and Gyr falcons concerning the percentages of live spermatozoa, normal spermatozoa and normal acrosomes. However, there were no significant differences (P≥ 0.05) between Saker and Gyr falcons with relation to mass motility and percentages of dead spermotoza and acrosomal abnormalities. In conclusion, results of this study clearly indicated that there were significant differences between Gyr, Saker and Peregrine falcons regarding semen quality traits involved in this study and Peregrine falcon excelled the other two breeds of falcon in relation to these semen traits.

Keywords: Breed; Falcon; Semen quality.

D. Palit, A. Banerjee

Traditional Uses and Conservative Lifestyle of Lepcha Tribe Through Sustainable Bioresource Utilization – Case Studies from Darjeeling and North Sikkim, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 735-752
The major objective of the present communication was to document the traditional knowledge regarding ethnomedicinal uses of different plant species and conservative lifestyle of the Lepcha community in Darjeeling and some parts of North Sikkim. Extensive field surveys were undertaken between 2006 (groundwork) and 2010 (comprehensive) in selected study sites of North Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India. Information was gathered using semi-structured formats, interviews, and group discussions. Lepchas have profound knowledge about the plants and animals in their surroundings and are reputed for their age-long traditions in herbal medicine. The present work brings into light 34 plant species from the ethno botanical survey among Lepcha people in Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, which have multifarious uses. The major areas of their utilization include folk medicine. Present ethnobotanical survey among the Lepchas in North Sikkim, India brings into light 44 plant species that indigenous people use in medicinal purposes and the plants they use to make different domestic utensils and musical instruments. Based on our field investigations, it appears that habitat loss due to increasing anthropogenic activities has promoter greater damage towards bioresources diversity of the concerned study sites. Therefore, awareness and documentation of traditional knowledge is vitally important.

Keywords: Lepcha; traditional knowledge; North Sikkim; Heritage

M.M.A.B. Abdullah, N. Nordin, M.F.M. Tahir, A.A. Kadir, A.V. Sandu

Potential of Sludge Waste Utilization as Construction Materials Via Geopolymerization

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 753-758
The amount of sludge wastes produced from mining, domestic agriculture and industrial activities are about 60200 tons per year. The waste increase will have a significant impact on the energy conservation and also on the environment. Many attempts have been made to use sludge waste as construction materials such as brick; for example sewage sludge, water sludge, ceramic sludge and fly ash sludge and also advantages on the properties have been found but heavy metals leachibility will be the main concerned. Geopolymer has an ability to incapsulate heavy metals. Therefore, sludge waste is a potential alternative to convert into useful products as building materials that can alleviate the disposal problems. Therefore, in this study the potential of sludge waste to be utilize as construction materials has been studied.

Keywords: Sludge waste; Geopolymer; Construction materials

A.I. Petrisor

Assessment of the Long-Term Effects of Global Changes within the Romanian Natural Protected Areas

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 759-770
The global changes (climate changes, land cover and use changes, and alterations of energy flows) affect our global phenomena. These phenomena are even more important in the natural protected areas, which are pristine places designated to preserve our biodiversity within the limits of the carrying capacity of ecosystems. The present study used spatial data to look at the effects of global changes within the Romanian natural protected areas. The results indicate that high temperatures and low precipitations menace the protected areas from mountain areas and to a lesser extent those in the wetlands. The transitional dynamics of land cover and use changes do not differ from the national ones and consist of antagonistic phenomena affecting forests (deforestation and reforestation), and, to a lesser extent, agriculture (abandonment and development), waters and wetlands (floods and draughts), and man-dominated systems (urbanization). The findings suggest that unplanned development incurs environmental costs.

Keywords: Conservation; Climate change; Land cover and use; Agriculture; Wetlands; Deforestation; Reforestation; CORINE.

I.O.O. Osunsina

Illegal Resources Extraction and Preponderance Distance of Villages: A Case Study of Four Nigerian National Parks

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 771-782
This study was conducted in four Nigerian National Parks namely: Cross River (CRNP), Gashaka Gumti (GGNP), Kainji Lake (KLNP) and Old Oyo (OONP) National Parks to assess the distance of Support Zone Villages and their farmland to the Parks boundaries and evaluate the problems of illegal resources extraction. Primary data were collected from 109 local communities in support zone of four Nigerian National Park. The study areas’ selection was through multi-stage random sampling. Data obtained were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and Spearman’s rho correlation. The study showed that 34.86% of the respondents have their Villages and farmlands far from the Parkland, 30.02% shares boundary with the park and 22.94% of the villages were located inside the Parkland, while 12.18% indicated that their villages and farmlands were not far from the Park. The result of the Spearman’s rho correlation indicated that there was significant relationship between illegal activities and distance of the village from the Park boundary (r =0.047, p 0.01 ). The study showed that the villagers around the parks do not observe the buffer zone limit and there is Illegal resources extraction. There is need to properly delineate the Parks boundary and ensure that buffer zones are rightly observed.

Keywords: Preponderance distances; Illegal activities; National Park; Resources Extraction

Publication date: 15.09.2016


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Issue Cover

Volume 7, Special Issue 2, 2016

Selected articles presented at
Congress of the Italian Archeometry Society
Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy,
March 9th -11th, 2016

Guest Editors:
Mauro Francesco LA RUSSA, Silvestro Antonio RUFFOLO,
Carmine LUBRITTO, Celestino GRIFA


M. F. La Russa, S.A. Ruffolo, C. Lubritto, C. Grifa

A Bridge between Art and Science: Past, Present and Future Perspectives

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 787-788
The idea of this Special Issue was born during the organization of the Congress of the Italian Archeometry Society (AIAr) held in Arcavacata di Rende (CS, Italy), 9-11 March 2016. The AIAr Association has been established in 1993, it is the main Italian association of scholars and researchers working in the field of scientific applications to Cultural Heritage Assets (

Research articles

V. Renda, M.L. Saladino, S. Caramanna, G. Chirco, A.F. Castello, C. Conti, A. Marco, D. Sali, E. Caponetti

Investigation on a Low Environmental Impact Solvent Mixture Applied to a Wooden Painted Slab

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 789-796
Cleaning is one of the most complex and delicate step in a restoration project, often due to the manufacturing techniques of the artifacts and their advanced state of decay. Eco-friendly solvents can permit to execute the cleaning operations with a reduced health impact for the restorers and for the environment. In this work, the performance of the 1,3-dioxolane/methylal (DIOX-MET) solvent mixture is evaluated over a wooden painted slab that had been covered with a thin layer of a protective varnish, probably during a previous conservation work performed in the Sixties. Removal of this varnish has been considered on behalf of its yellowing degradation process, which caused chromatic changes over the pictorial layer. The study was performed by comparing DIOX-MET performance to that of a traditional solvent mixture. The effectiveness of the cleaning process was followed in situ by using a portable FT-IR total reflectance spectrometer.

Keywords: Eco-friendly solvent; Varnish; Portable Infrared Spectroscopy; Wooden ceiling; Steri.

G. Montana, L. Randazzo, M.R. Cerniglia, C. Aleo Nero, F. Spatafora

Production Technology of Early-hellenistic Lime-based Mortars from a Punic-Roman Residential Area at Palermo (Sicily)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 797-812
The topic of this study is the mineralogical and petrographic characterization of lime-based mortars of Hellenistic-Roman age (3rd century BCE), collected from a residential area located in the present historical centre of Palermo, near the remains of the Punic-Roman walls. The collected mortars have been analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectrometry. The aim of the study was the characterization of the mortars as pertaining to their aggregate and binder composition, aggregate size distribution and aggregate/binder ratio, so as to establish the provenance of raw materials and acquire information useful in terms of formulating suitable restoration mortars. The mineralogical and petrographic investigations allowed to recognize four different recipes used for the formulation of the studied mortars. The aggregate is made up of different proportions of alluvial calcareous and siliceous sands or, in some cases, by ‘cocciopesto’ - opus signinum. Aerial lime-based mortars have been attested for the majority of the wall coatings and decorations subject to analysis. Furthermore, an unusual mosaic flooring, manufactured with tesserae obtained from overfired, locally produced limestone scraps, was attested. The sandy aggregate was quarried from the coastal alluvial deposits of the river Oreto, whose estuary is situated in the vicinity of the ancient city walls. The binder was primarily produced by the calcination of locally available limestones, lacking in magnesium carbonate. It presents a satisfactory technological similarity with two roughly coeval manufactures, located in western Sicily and relating to the aggregate, as well as the mortars manufactured for the purpose of decorating the historical palaces of Palermo. This in turn indicates a remarkable continuity regarding the selection of locally available raw materials, an aspect mainly dictated by their qualitative characteristics.

Keywords: Lime-based mortars; Roman-Hellenistic period; Mineralogical and petrographic characterization; Sicily, Palermo.

M.L. Weththimuni, C. Canevari, A. Legnani, M. Licchelli, M. Malagodi, M. Ricca, A. Zeffiro

Experimental Characterization of Oil-colophony Varnishes: A Preliminary Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 813-826
Historically, the varnishes had the aim to protect the bowed musical instruments by the external agents and to confer them an aesthetic value. During the 17th and 18th century, in Italy, the bowed instruments, especially violins, were generally covered by a layer of varnish made with several natural materials such resins, oil or hide glue: i.e., instruments by the great violin maker Antonio Stradivari were covered often with a layer of varnish made of linseed oil and colophony in the ratio 3:1, respectively. The main aim of this work was to study the modifications that occur in those kinds of varnishes, after exposing them to some factors of degradation. In order to study the different properties of organic coatings and their suitable compositions, different mixtures of linseed oil and colophony were recreated in the laboratory following an ancient recipe: linseed oil and colophony were mixed together with different ratios (50/50 and 75/25, respectively) and then, they were applied on Maple wood samples and on glass slides for experimental purposes. In order to investigate the different external factors which cause the varnish layer degradation, samples were analyzed by different techniques before and after different ageing processes (thermo-hygrometric cycles, exposition to UV lamp and to acid vapors). Out of strong experimental evaluation, all the results suggested that the composition of 75/25 (oil: colophony) is much better as a varnish for musical instruments.

Keywords: Antonio Stradivari; Varnish; Linseed oil; Colophony; micro FTIR; Hardness; SEM; TGA

N. Ruggieri

An Italian Anti-seismic System of the 18th Century Decay, Failure Modes and Conservation Principles

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 827-838
After the catastrophic earthquake that struck the Calabria region (Italy) in 1783, the Borbone government, among several measures, enacted an anti-seismic code. Such a law provided indications based on the most advanced criteria of the seismic engineering of the Age of Enlightenment, relative to resistant earthquake buildings execution, including masonry walls reinforced with timber frames. That structural organization has emphasized a proper response to seismic actions both orthogonal and parallel ones to the masonry panel. In September 2013, a full-scale replica of this type of wall, has been tested under quasi-static cyclic loads at the CNR IVALSA laboratory, recording limited damage. Furthermore, observations and indications about damage, in particular wall overturning, which buildings constructed according to the System suffered, drawn by means of a large collection of historical photos, is presented and discussed in the paper. The timber included in the compound structure is characterized by a moderate durability due to the potential high humidity generated at the wood-masonry interface, hence favourable conditions for biotic attacks. The contribution devotes its attention on the description of technological and theoretical criteria and principles on which a correct strengthening intervention on historical masonry framed wall has to be founded.

Keywords: Borbone constructive system; Timber framing; Biotic decay; Seismic damage; Conservation principles.

V. Rotolo, G. Barresi, E. Di Carlo, A. Giordano, G. Lombardo, E. Crimi, E. Costa, M. Bruno, F. Palla

Plant Extracts as Green Potential Strategies to Control the Biodeterioration of Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 839-846
The biodeterioration of historic-artistic manufacts is related to several biological systems, including fungi and bacteria, whose metabolic activities and vegetative development have a direct consequence on the conservation of cultural assets. Generally, different chemical compounds are utilized as biocides in order to control biodeteriogens growth, but recently the attention has been focused on potential risks of their use towards human health (operators, visitors) and the environment. In order to develop alternative methods, various natural products have been tested, particularly to control the colonization by fungi and bacteria. In this study, antimicrobial activity of three different plant products, Tea tree essential oil, Calamintha nepeta and Allium sativum L. extracts, has been evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp. (previously isolated from colonized artworks) through three different in vitro antimicrobial assays (micro-dilution in microtiter plates, well plates diffusion and agar disc diffusion method). The bioassays show a different microbial susceptibility to plant extracts, establishing for each bacteria and fungi the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and defining the diameter of the growth inhibition area. This result supports the data reported in literature and shows an important potential suggestion for the possible use in the control of biodeterioration of cultural heritage, safe both for human health and environment.

Keywords: Biodeteriogens; Antimicrobial activity; Plant products; Antimicrobial assays; Cultural assets

C. Pelosi, G. Agresti, P. Holmes, A. Ervas, S. De Angeli, U. Santamaria

An X-ray Fluorescence Investigation of Ancient Roman Musical Instruments and Replica Production under the Aegis of the European Music Archaeological Project

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 847-856
This paper reports on the investigation of a number of metal musical instruments, from the Roman period, by combining non-invasive portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and technical analysis. The study is part of the European project EMAP (European Music Archaeology Project, 2013-2018) which aims to highlight Europe’s ancient cultural roots from variety of perspectives, including: musical, scientific and “sensorial”. In particular, the analysis and technical details of some Roman cornua stored in the Naples museum will be presented. The cornua under investigation came originally from excavations carried out in Pompeii. The characterization of the metal alloy and of the various soldering materials was performed utilising X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in a totally non-invasive mode by means of portable no-contact equipment. This choice of technique resulted from the impossibility of transporting the instruments out of the museum for further investigation and also of taking samples for laboratory analysis. The alloys utilised in the cornua from Pompeii are made up of copper and tin, with a tin content of around 1%. Solders are made from copper, lead and zinc (about 4-5%). Mouthpiece, receivers when present, exhibited high counts of zinc. The use of a brass alloy for solders identifies a sophisticated technological ability which was employed when creating the musical instruments.

Keywords: Roman cornua; Metal alloy; Music archaeology, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

M. Caroselli, G. Cavallo, A. Felici, L. Aliverti, S. Luppichini, G. Jean, G. Nicoli

Characterisation of the Stucco Decorations at the “Sacro Monte Di Ossuccio” (16th-17th Century), Como, Italy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 857-870
The “Sacro Monte di Ossuccio” (Como) was listed in the UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2003. The main Sanctuary was built from 1537 and consecrated in 1699. The nave is adorned with stucco attributed to Giovanni Battista Muttoni, while documentary evidence indicates that the stucco work of the inner façade was made by Agostino Silva (1628-1706). This study is part of a project that investigates the executive techniques of the plasterers from Ticino integrating the results of archival research, artistic practice and scientific investigations. In particular, the scientific investigations on 15 stucco samples have included Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM), Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stuccoes of the Sanctuary are characterised by different executive techniques and different types of mortar mixtures: in the stuccoes attributed to Muttoni, in most cases a thick (1-1,5 cm) finishing layer made of Mg-rich lime and calcite crystals can be observed, while in others a very thin one (200 micron) composed of a weakly hydraulic lime, without aggregates. In the composition of the angels done by Agostino Silva there is gypsum, added in the arriccio layer and present in traces in the finishing one.

Keywords: Stucco decoration; PLM; Artistic technique; Scientific analysis; Agostino Silva.

M. Clausi, L.L. Magnani, R. Occhipinti, M.P. Riccardi, M. Zema, S.C. Tarantino

Interaction of Metakaolin-based Geopolymers with Natural and Artificial Stones and Implications on Their Use in Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 871-884
Alkali activated materials, and geopolymers in particular, have proven to be a valid alternative to traditional binders, due to their significant mechanical performances, durability and environmental advantages. The present paper describes the results of a research project, initiated in order to explore the potentiality and suitability of metakaolin-based geopolymers within the domain of cultural heritage. SEM-EDS analyses were utilized in order to evaluate the interaction of geopolymers with natural and artificial stones by assessing the variations at the boundaries due to differences in the minero-petrographic and chemical compositions of natural and artificial stones. Three ornamental stones widely used in the historic Italian architecture were selected: Pietra Serena (sandstone), Pietra di Angera (dolostone) and Pietra di Noto (limestone). Widespread construction materials, such as concrete and brick were also included in the study. Furthermore, the interaction between geopolymers and historic elements, such as decorative stones and/or mortars, were also studied, in order to evaluate a possible application of these materials within the realm of restoration, as well as for the conservation of historic manufactures. The results revealed that adhesion appears to be satisfactory in the case of all analyzed materials. Silicoaluminate phases partially dissolve and increase the availability of Si and Al within the interface, resulting in a strongly interlinked whole, whereas carbonate phases and rocks supply Ca, which changes the local composition of the binder.

Keywords: Geopolymers; Metakaolin; Cultural heritage; Ornamental stones; Construction materials; Microstructure; Interaction zone.

C. Grifa, S. Barba, F. Fiorillo, C. Germinario, F. Izzo, M. Mercurio, D. Musmeci, A. Potrandolfo, A. Santoriello, P. Toro, A. Langella

The Domus of Octavius Quartio in Pompeii: Damage Diagnosis of the Masonries and Frescoed Surfaces

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 885-900
Domus of Octavius Quartio occupies the entire insula 2 of Region II in Pompeii, representing one of the most important village of this archaeological site. An interdisciplinary approach has been adopted in order to plan conservative, preventive and restoration actions aimed at the requalification of Pompeii within the frame of “Grande Progetto Pompei” program. 3D Laser scanner surveys and damage diagnosis following Fitzner’s method were carried out. The identification and description of weathering forms was carried out using ICOMOS-ISCS and NorMaL 1/88 recommendations, readapted and reinterpreted also for frescoes. Ten different weathering forms were identified; the frescoed room and the fountain are mainly affected by fissures, convex deformations, lacuna, efflorescence, discoloration, moist areas and patinas; the surrounding wall shows back weathering due to the disaggregation of bedding mortars; moreover the blocks are interested by rounding and biological colonization (lichens). Mapping the areal distribution of weathering forms and defining the damage categories, allowed an estimation of the linear and progressive damage index. Actually, a good conservation state of frescoed room (1.5 – 2.0) and fountain (0.7 – 1.2) was identified; a definitely worse conservation state, instead, was observed in the external wall, where the highest progressive damage index value (3) was measured.

Keywords: Pompeii; Octavio Quartio domus; Damage; Fitzner’s method; Weathering forms; Mortars; Travertine.

V. Crupi, Z. Kasztovszky, F. Khalilli, M.F. La Russa, A. Macchia, D. Majolino, B. Rossi, N. Rovella, S.A. Ruffolo, V. Venuti

Evaluation of Complementary Methodologies Applied to a Preliminary Archaeometric Study of Glazed Pottery from Agsu (Azerbaijan)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 901-912
Agsu town is an Azerbaijan's recently excavated, important archaeological site, considered a crossroads of commercial routes since the ancient times between China, Asia Minor and Europe. For this reason, the area is rich in different typologies of artifacts with various provenances such as stone objects, glazed pottery and coins. The excavations indicated the presence of workshops specialized in various spheres of metallurgy, as well as of dye-works. A non-invasive or, at least, micro-destructive multi-technique approach was applied for the characterization of eight archaeological pottery fragments taken from Agsu Site (Azerbaijan) dated back XIX century A.D.. At different spatial scales, a combination of complementary optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) was applied. The proposed study is aimed at addressing issues such as the characterization of raw materials, the determination of manufacturing, the reconstruction of the firing technology, the identification of the pigments used for decoration and the formulation of a first hypothesis about provenance of the artifacts considered the scarce studies about it in literature.

Keywords: Pottery; Azerbaijan; SEM-EDS; XRD; PGAA; technology

M.C. Tomassetti, G. Lucarini, M.A. Hamdan, A. Macchia, G. Mutri, B.E. Barich

Preservation and Restoration of the Wadi Sura Caves in the Framework of the “Gilf Kebir National Park”, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 913-934
In 2010 the Italian-Egyptian Environmental Cooperation launched a safeguarding project for the preservation of the caves with prehistoric rock art located in the Gilf Kebir plateau in southwestern Egypt. The project was part of the cooperation program developed to establish the Egyptian Gilf Kebir National Park (GKNP) protected area. Given their bad state of preservation, the Italian conservation project focused on the Caves of Swimmers and Archers, located along the Wadi Sura. Although only very few studies of this kind have been carried out in the Saharan region, our work in the Gilf Kebir can be considered a pilot study, the results of which should be evaluated in the long term. Results obtained to date and reported in this paper provide analytical petrographic studies of the bedrock, a complete photographic and geodetic survey of the two sites, data from climate monitoring, along with a preliminary consolidation of some of the most at-risk areas of the two caves. Finally, laboratory experimentation led us to select the most suitable materials for the consolidation of the rock, shifting in the direction of nano-technology instead of ethyl silicate use because of the longer cross-linking process of the latter in hyper-arid environments; the use of the latter can in fact result in extremely long and expensive field seasons. These results will be valuable for the continuation and extension of the project, which is currently suspended due to safety concerns in the region.

Keywords: Saharan rock art; Climatic weathering; Sandstone consolidation; Petrographic analysis; Porosimetric analysis; Laboratory experimentation on nano-silica.

A. Re, A. Lo Giudice, M. Nervo, P. Buscaglia, P. Luciani, M. Borla, C. Greco

The Importance of Tomography Studying Wooden Artefacts: A Comparison with Radiography in the Case of a Coffin Lid from Ancient Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 935-944
X-ray radiography is nowadays widely employed in the Cultural Heritage field and can give many and useful information on different topics related to artworks and archaeological finds. On the other hand, tomography is less diffused and more time-consuming and expensive, but overcomes the main limitation of radiography, that is the projection of the entire volume on a plane, losing information about the third dimension. This is especially true when radiography is applied to objects with complex geometry or different materials: in these cases, the real distribution of pieces and materials is sometimes impossible to understand and a tomography is necessary. In this paper, we will show the case study of the Taiefmutmut’s coffin lid, a woman from Ancient Egypt, analysed with both radiography and tomography. This case is particularly significant because, even if the object is relatively simple both for geometry and materials, the results obtained with the two techniques are noticeably different. In particular, the tomography gives a larger amount of information, both on the building technique, on the state of conservation and on previous restorations.

Keywords: Digital radiography; X-ray tomography; Coffin; Ancient Egypt; Restoration; Preservation; Cultural heritage.

F. Pique’, M. Caroselli, C.L. Koch Dandolo, S. Luppichini, M. Santella

Multitechnical Approach for the Characterization of the Stratigraphy of Blue Areas in the Wall Paintings in the Chapel 11 at the “Sacro Monte Di Varallo”, Italy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 945-954
Chapel n. 11(1591) represents ‘the Massacre of the innocents’ and is one of the most dramatic of the 45 chapels at the UNESCO World Heritage site of the “Sacro Monte di Varallo” (Vercelli, Italy). The University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI) in collaboration with “Ente Sacri Monti” is carrying out several investigations to acquire the necessary knowledge about original, added and degradation materials present on the wall paintings of chapel 11, to develop a conservation strategy and a restoration plan. Starting from on site visual examination, the analytical investigation campaign included non-invasive investigations (portable microscope, technical photography and portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) and laboratory analyses on samples (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, observations by polarized optical microscope and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Selected datasets resulted from the investigation on plaster, blue polychrome and on repainting are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Wall painting; Technical photography; FTIR; XRF; SEM-EDS; FTIR; Varallo; IR, Vis and UV reflectography; Smalt; Azurite

N. Rovella, V. Comite, M. Ricca

Technological Investigation of Red- and Black-Figured Pottery of Unknown Provenance

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 955-964
This contribution is concerned with the archaeometric study of seven red- and black-figured potteries, kindly provided by the Carabinieri Corps for Protection of Cultural Heritage, Cosenza Unit (Calabria, Italy). The study was aimed to establish the authenticity of the archaeological artifacts and for this purpose an analytical approach, based on minero-petrographic and geochemical investigations, was applied. Petrographic analysis (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS microanalysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out with the aim of identifying technological features, microstructure and to obtain information on the technological features of each sample. Finally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect possible surface coatings.

Keywords: Archaeological potteries; red- and black-figured; archaeometry; authenticity

Publication date: 01.11.2016

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Issue Cover

Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2016

Research articles

R. Bordalo, C. Bottaini, C. Moricca, A. Candeias

Material Characterization of a Florentine Painter in Portugal in the Late 19th Century: Paintings by Giorgio Marini

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 967-980

This paper presents the analytical characterization of a series of paintings authored by Giorgio Marini (1836-1905) from the Museum of Évora. Marini was an Italian painter who lived in Portugal in the 19th century. He was a very prolific painter and his works, most of them portraits commissioned by urban and rural bourgeois and noble elites, are dispersed all over the country. The general good conservation state of most paintings prevented the collection of micro-samples for detailed study. Hence, material identification of the painting materials was performed primarily by XRF, given its non-destructive and non-invasive nature, and it was complemented when possible by auxiliary techniques optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and SEM-EDX. Pigments and fillers such as yellow and red ochre, lead white, zinc white, barium white, chrome yellow and green chrome are among the identified pigments. This is the first time the palette used by Giorgio Marini was identified, helping to characterized the pigments used by foreign painters during the 19th century in Portugal.

Keywords: Portable XRF; Raman spectroscopy; SEM-EDX; Pigment analysis

S. Gulzar, J.-P. Burg

Characterization of Shahdara Tomb’s Wall Plasters from Lahore, Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 981-994
Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with (EDS), petrography and X-ray diffraction analyses were employed to characterize the historic wall plasters from 17th century Shahdara’s tomb, in Lahore (Pakistan). Three types of plaster layers corresponded to different functions and locations. The study focused on the nature, composition, texture and microstructural features of binder (lime) and aggregate (Kankar-carbonate fragments, brick pieces and slag) fractions to understand their technical and historical production. Results indicated that pozzolanic brick and slag fragments developed strong adhesion bonds with the binder, which enhanced the durability of the investigated plasters. These results would help in making materials with similar technical and compositional characteristics to set up a scientific plan for conservation and restoration purposes.

Keywords: Mughal; Wall; Plaster; Shahdara Tomb; SEM-EDS; Lahore Steri.

M. Munteanu, I.C.A. Sandu, M.M. Lupascu, V. Vasilache, I. Sandu

The Importance of a Complete and Modern Information Gathering Protocol in the Conservation Process of a XVIII-th Century Icon

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 995-1008
The main aim of this paper is present a complete and modern information gathering protocol required in the conservation process of a 18th century wooden icon and to exemplify the importance of permanently implementing new analysis techniques and examination methods in the field of cultural heritage conservation. In order to obtain all the required information for the future restoration process that the icon taken into study will undergo, the following analysis techniques and examination methods were used: OM, SEM-EDX, micro-FTIR, 3D scanning, and RTI (Reflectance Transforming Image). If the classical OM, SEM-EDX and micro-FTIR have allowed us to identify the material used by the author in creating the icon (natural ultramarine blue, red lead), the other two examination techniques have offered the opportunity to generate a digital model of the icon, providing digital information regarding the artwork geometry or the metrical analysis of the surface of the object, and the resource to examine the icon without the risk of handling it again.

Keywords: Old wood icon; OM; SEM-EDX; micro-FTIR; 3D; RTI

A. Buccolieri, G. Buccolieri, A. Castellano, M. Marabelli

X-Ray Fluorescence for the Study of the Patinas on an Outdoor Bronze Monument

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1009-1022
The aim of this paper is the analysis of main elements of the patinas on an outdoor bronze monument, through the use of a portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) equipment. In particular we investigated the concentration of copper, tin, lead, calcium, iron, sulphur and chlorine on the patinas of a bronze statue dedicated to Sigismondo Castromediano, which was created in 1905 and later placed in Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy). Thanks to the versatility of the EDXRF portable apparatus we carried out a complete scan of the monument in a relatively short time. This has enabled us to obtain useful information on the patinas in a completely non-invasive way. EDXRF experimental data demonstrated that the two analysed parts of the monument are constituted by different bronzes, whereas the elements that characterize the depositions are equivalent in the two monitored parts. Moreover, multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in order to identify possible correlations and/or differences of elemental composition among the patinas of these two statues. Finally, a X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on a sample of deposit collected from an area of the statue not exposed to the washing away, in order to identify the phases of the deposit and to evaluate possible corrosion products. The main results of XRD analysis show that there are not corrosion products and the deposit is due to suspended particulate. The information obtained can be helpful for both archaeological and conservation studies for possible future monitoring and/or restoration work of the statue in object.

Keywords: Bronze patina; Non-destructive techniques; EDXRF portable; Statistical analysis; XRD

N.Z. Shaban, S.S. Darouish, T.A. Salah

Experimental Study on the Cleaning of Foxing Spots on the Old Paper Manuscripts using Natural Products

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1023-1030
Many manuscripts and historical books contain a form of deterioration known as foxing or fox spots, a brownish stain which has the effect of altering aesthetic and visual appeal. The aim of this work is to study the role of the extracts of Water Cantaloupe (CE) and Water melon (WE) separately as natural products in removing foxing spots in various modern and old papers. Old papers and three types of modern papers made from cotton, linen and a mixture of cotton, linen and wood (1:1:1) were used for this purpose. Each type was divided into two groups, one of them was infected with foxing and the other was left as control (uninfected). Infected papers were treated with CE, WE and 2% sodium hypochlorite (as a traditional chemical bleaching) separately. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in addition to some optical and mechanical properties were carried out to evaluate the Cantaloupe Extracts (CE) and Water Melon Extracts (WE) use in removing foxing stains compared to sodium hypochlorite. The results showed that CE removed foxing in different studied papers at pH = 7.4. In contrast, WE could not remove these foxing at any studied pH values.

Keywords: Foxing; Natural products; Cantaloupe; Water melons; Paper; Cleaning

M. Plaza Beltran

Submerged Villages. Recovering Wall Paintings from the Church of Atance (Guadalajara, Spain). Technical Study, Exhibition, and 3D Display

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1031-1046
The construction of a dam often means losing the heritage of the villages that are caught beneath the rising waters. In the case discussed here, the inhabitants of the village of Atance (Guadalajara, Spain) saved their church and its contents by relocating it to the city of Guadalajara (Spain). The removal of an altarpiece in the church revealed a hidden niche covered in frescos. The niche had been walled up to erect the altarpiece. When the frescos were detached, they were found to have been laid on top of another painting, estimated to be as old as the church itself. We designed a novel system for displaying both sides of the detached frescos (with the impression left by the earlier work), preserving the shape and dimensions of the niche. This structure shows both the original and later paintings, together with the impression left by the original fresco on the back of the later depiction. Using virtual 3D imaging, the structure can now be viewed from all angles.

Keywords: Mural; Polychromy; Conservation; Exhibition; 3D photogrammetry

M. Abdallah, H.M. Kamal, A. Abdrabou

Investigation, Preservation and Restoration Processes of an Ancient Egyptian Wooden Offering Table

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1047-1064
The wooden offering table studied here dates back to Middle Kingdom (2040 – 1782 B.C), and consists of wood and yellow pigment. This study aims to use analytical techniques to identify the components of the table and to understand its deterioration aspects. Visual assessment, isolation and identification of fungi, ultraviolet spectroscopy scanning, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to assess wood deterioration and degradation, to identify wood species, pigments, and previous preservation and restoration materials. The results revealed that the wood species is cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), used for the body of the offering table, while the dowels are made of hardwood; the pigment used on the table is yellow ochre and the previous preservation and restoration materials are a mixture of beeswax and rosin. The offering table is severely damaged by old fungi infection, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp. were the most dominant fungi found on the offering table. The offering table was previously restored and reassembly by using new dowels made of softwood and extensively amount of a mixture of beeswax and rosin, especially in the four connecting points between the four legs and the four horizontal rails.

Keywords: Preservation; Restoration; Offering table; Wood; Fungal degradation and deterioration; SEM; FTIR; OM

H. Sadek

SEM-EDX Microstructure Characterization of Ptolemaic Faience Beads from Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1065-1070
In this study faience beads from Saqqara, Egypt, monochrome and with a diameter of 2-3 mm, dating from the Greco-Roman period, were analyzed by SEM-EDS. SEM was employed in three modes depending on the obtained data; imaging, composition analysis and elemental mapping. The results show that the faience beads were modeled manually by hand, as well as that plant ashes was used as alkaline flux agent rather than natron. Using the elemental mapping playing important role in determination of glazing technique, where cementation is the used technique in studied samples.

Keywords: Beads; Faience; Cementation; SEM-EDX; Elemental mapping

M. Danu, V. Diaconu, L. Bejenaru

Chalcolithic Agropastoralism Traces in The Site of Raucesti (Neamt County, Romania): Phytoliths and Animal Remains

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1071-1080
Phytoliths and animal remains deriving from the Chalcolithic site of Răucești (Neamț County, Romania) are used for obtaining a set of data regarding the palaeoenvironment and the resources of subsistence that were available for the Cucutenian community from this settlement. The information obtained in this study is very important considering the precarious preservation state of the archaeological site that has been destroyed in a systematic manner due to agrarian works. Phytolith analysis discloses the dominance of spontaneous grasses, but the results also highlight the presence of grains inside the site. Thus, an open environment is delineated around the settlement, an image that is also testified by the archaezoological data. The analysis of animal remains brings in new clues regarding the palaeoeconomy of the settlement: animal husbandry and hunting were practiced by the Cucutenian community of Răucești.

Keywords: Phytoliths; Animal Remains; Chalcolithic; Cucuteni; Răucești (Neamț)

S. Escobar-Lasso, M. Gil-Fernandez, J. Sáenz1, E. Carrillo-Jiménez, G. Wong, L.G. Fonseca

Inter-Trophic Food Provisioning Between Sea and Land: The Jaguar (Panthera Onca) as Provider of Sea Turtle Carcasses to Terrestrial Scavengers

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1081-1094
A more complete perspective of carrion use by terrestrial vertebrates and about the role of predators in net carrion supply will improve our understanding of critical ecological processes, particularly those associated with energy flow and trophic interactions. Therefore, the aims of this work were: 1) to record the scavenger species which are benefited indirectly by the predator-prey relationship between jaguars and sea turtles, and 2) to evaluate the influence of activity of vultures on the feeding behavior of the jaguar on sea turtles. During the study period a total of 24 predation events on sea turtles by jaguars were recorded at Nancite beach, Costa Rica. We recorded a total of 11 vertebrate species scavenging on sea turtle carcasses. In this paper, we found that the number of days that the jaguars fed on a sea turtle carcass was correlated with the number of days that the vultures took to find the sea turtle carcass. Our work concluded that the ecological value of jaguars as a top predator, flag, umbrella and keystone species includes their role as a provider of carcasses to scavengers.

Keywords: Carrion subsidies; Competitive behavior; Kleptoparasitism; Trophic interactions; Scavenging behavior; Vulture activity; Predation links.

P.K. Nayak, R.K. Mohanta, A.K. Sahu, K.K. Swain

Mangroves of Mahanadi Delta in the State of Odisha and Aspects of their Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp.1095-1104
The coast line of Odisha State lying on the east coastal wetland ecosystem of the Indian subcontinent falls within the bounds of tropics and covers a distance of 480kms with a variety of plant habitats. The remarkable mangrove communities within the tidal forest ecosystem along the sheltered places of the coast line bounded by the deltaic and estuarine complex of the rivers Mahanadi, Dhamra, Brahmani and Devi in the districts of Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Balasore and Bhadrak are unique for floristic and ecological values. The mangrove vegetation in Odisha occurs both in continuous as well as fragmented patches along the coastal tract. Mahanadi delta encompassing Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur and Puri districts harbors a rich diversity of mangroves and their associates. From extensive survey in Mahanadi delta over 3 years (2012-2015), 61 species of mangroves and their associates have been collected and identified. Some mangroves ensure livelihood support to the local communities in many ways. But it is a matter of great concern that this plant communities are under severe threat and pressure due to anthropogenic interferences. So, it is time to adopt massive mangrove restoration programs with special emphasis on conservation of rare and threatened species.

Keywords: Mangroves; Mahanadi delta; Conservation; Restoration programs; Anthropogenic interferences

B. Tripathy

Reproductive Biology and Conservation of Olive Ridley at the Rushikulya Rookery of Odisha, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1105-1126
A study of the reproductive biology and conservation of the Olive Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea was undertaken at the Rushikulya rookery along the Odisha coast in 2002-2005. The distribution of Olive Ridley sea turtles in the nearshore waters of the Rushikulya rookery was studied. Solitary and arribada population of Olive Ridley at the rookery was monitored. Data on adult mortality, predation of eggs and juveniles, beach erosion and Casuarina plantation along the beach were enumerated. The maximum offshore area utilized by turtles is and mating takes place at a depth of 16-28m and 2 to 5km from the shore. The number of turtles counted on the beach was 11024, for which curved carapace measurements of egg laying females were recorded as 67.16 ± 3.65cm. Sporadic nesting was documented from December to April with a peak in March, and no major intermediate nesting in between. The mass nesting census differs greatly compared to the figures projected by the monitoring agency. Multiple nesting by individual and inter-seasonal shift in movement of turtles from the Rushikulya rookery was confirmed. Fishing practices are not found to influence breeding activities. Mortality was low at Rushikulya compared to rest of the Odisha coast. However, other anthropogenic pressures, viz. plantation, erosion and illumination, have emerged as visible threats at Rushikulya.

Keywords: Olive Ridley; Reproductive patch; Arribada; Incubation; Orientation; Illumination; Rushikulya; Odisha

S.L. Jamir, C.R. Deb, N.S. Jamir

Studies on Reproductive Biology and Seed Biology of Panax Pseudoginseng Wall. (Araliaceae): A Threatened Medicinal Plant

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1127-1134
Panax pseudoginseng Wall. (Araliaceae) is a highly threatened medicinal plant. The plant population is declining rapidly owning to high exploitation for medicinal uses along with limitation within the plant itself in its reproductive behavior and seed habit. Sprouting of buds takes place from mid-February and flowers from late May till early June. Centripetal inflorescence is exhibited with continued nature of flowering. Timing of anthesis is between 6:30–7:30 AM and plants are usually self-pollinated. Seeds are dispersed by wind, gravity, small animals and birds. Plant showed positive correlation between plant height and number of leaflets. Berry production starts from 2-leaves plants onwards. Two-seeded fruit was found to be most dominant. Higher stage plants exhibits higher dormancy. Seeds of P. pseudoginseng exhibits long dormancy and demands pre-sowing stratification. Seeds stratified at both warm at 25°C for 3 months followed by cold stratification at 4°C for 4 months exhibited 68.20% germination in the seed bed.

Keywords: Dormancy; Medicinal plant; Panax pseudoginseng Wall.; Phenology; Reproductive output; Seed biology; Threatened plants.

G. Romanescu, A. Tirnovan, G.M. Cojoc, I.G. Sandu

Temporal Variability of Minimum Liquid Discharge in Suha Basin. Secure Water Resources and Preservation Possibilities

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1135-1144
The last climatic years have recorded a recrudescence of risk phenomena, especially floods and droughts. Because of this reason an acute shortage of water is presently felt even in the mountainous areas. Hydrological data have been recorded at 5 gauges distributed in the middle and lowers sectors of the basin. Suha river basin includes a large number of inhabitants, attracted here some time ago by mining exploitations. The closing of Ostra mine has not led to a decrease in population, and thus water demands are higher and higher and underground resources are used. Minimum discharge in the basin is extremely low in comparison to the reality of other mountain catchments (at Stulpicani gauge a mean minimum discharge of 0.611 m3/s has been recorded during 1970-2013). This situation is due first of all to the rapid infiltration of water in the very permeable deposits (sands, gravels, boulders). An increase in water demands is probable if the comfort of the dwellings is improved by raising the number of baths and showers, of greenhouses for vegetables growing, of guest-houses with pools etc. In order to preserve water resources in the area is imposed the keeping of the present forested surfaces and the adequate control of tailings dumps so as to avoid underground and surface water pollution. Due to practices like toilets lacking septic tanks or gathering of manure on un-isolated platforms, the conservation of present water quality (especially the underground one) is imperious.

Keywords: Water demands; Discharge; Surface flow; Hydrologic drought; meteorological drought

R.D. Kangabam, S. Kanagaraj, G. Munisamy

Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Potential of Loktak Lake in Manipur - A Biodiversity Hotspot

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1145-1152
Wetlands are important natural resources and vital for human survival on the earth. They are one of the most productive environments and cradles for biological diversity. They are considered as wealth of carbon storage and provide a potential sink for global atmospheric carbon, but the role of the wetlands in carbon sequestration storage has been under estimated. The recent increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide has led to growing concern among the public and scientific community to identify the potential of various ecosystem to sequestered more carbon. There is growing interest among researchers to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol to stabilize the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming through managing wetland restoration and conservations projects to exploit the carbon sequestration potential. The objective of the present study is to assess the soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sites of Loktak Lake to estimate the carbon stock and provide their potential of carbon sequestration capacity. The result from the analysis of SOC density ranges from 0.70kg/m2 to 6.57kg/m2 at a depth of 0…10 cm and density varies during the season with maximum SOC of 5.18kg/m2 during post monsoon and 3.19kg/m2 during winter. The total carbon sequestration potential of the Loktak Lake is 204181 tones year−1. The outcome from the study will help in formulation of efficient strategies to mitigate the increase in carbon dioxide and reduction of the GHG emissions from wetlands in the Indo-Burma (Myanmar) Biodiversity Hotspot.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration; Bulk density; Soil organic carbon; Loktak Lake; Wetland Protection, Sustainable management

Sudarmono, D. Latifah, S. Hartini, H. Wawangningrum

Hand-pollination of the Giant Corpse Flower in the Bogor Botanic Gardens

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 1153-1160
The remarkable inflorescence of Amorphophallus titanum (Becc.) Becc. ex Arcang (the giant corpse flower) has always attracted world-wide attention, especially from people involved in the plant sciences. However, the characteristics of its reproductive biology have challenged efforts to cultivate and domesticate the plant. The species rarely produces fruit/seeds because the male and female flowers do not mature simultaneously. The success of pollination, as indicated by subsequent fruit production, depends on the interaction between insects and the mature male and female flowers from different individual plants. Therefore this study on cross-hand pollination to produce seeds is very important to support the ex-situ conservation efforts of this species in collections. Based on observation, flowering of the species occurs at least once every three year. An inflorescence of A. titanum which opened in Bogor Botanic Gardens on 2 February 2012 was pollinated manually using (stored) pollen taken from another plant, which had bloomed on 29 November 2011. The hand cross-pollination was successful and the fruit (infructescence) produced on 22 February 2012 marked the first success for manual pollination of this giant aroid in Indonesia. In this research, the morphology of pollen of A. titanum was carefully observed and its quality of stored seeds was tested.

Keywords: Amorphophallus titanum; Bogor Botanic Gardens; Giant inflorescence.

Publication date: 15.12.2016